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Flashcards in Chapter 7 Deck (106):
1

axial skeleton

bones that lie around the longitudinal axis of the body

2

appendicular skeleton

bones of the upper and lower limbs plus the bones forming the girdle that connect the limbs to the axial skeleton

3

long bone

greater length than width; slightly curved for strength

4

short bone

somewhat cube shaped; consist of spongy bone tissue except at the surface where there is a thin layer of compact bone tissue; i.e. tarsals

5

flat bones

thin; composed of 2 parallel plates of compact bone enclosing a layer of spongy bone; provide big area for attachment

6

irregular bones

complex shapes; vary in amount of spongy and compact bone

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sesamoid bones

shaped like a sesame seed; develop in tendons where there is considerable friction; i.e. palms and soles

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sutural bone

small bones located in sutures between cranial bones

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fissure

narrow slit between adjacent parts of bones through which blood vessels and nerves pass; i.e. superior orbital fissure of sphenoid bone

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foramen

opening through which blood vessels, nerves or ligaments pass; i.e. optic foreman of sphenoid bone

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fossa

shallow depression; i.e. coronoid fossa of humerus

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sulcus

furrow along bone surface that accommodates blood vessel, nerve or tendon; inter tubercular sulcus of humerus

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meatus

tubelike opening; external auditory meatus of temporal bone

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condyle

large, round protuberance with a smooth articular surface at end of bone; lateral condyle of femur

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facet

smooth, flat, slightly concave or convex articular surface; i.e. superior articular facet of vertebra

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sulcus

furrow along bone surface that accommodates blood vessel, nerve or tendon; i.e. inter tubercular sulcus of humerus

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meatus

tubelike opening; i.e. external auditor meatus of temporal bone

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condyle

large, round, protuberance with a smooth articular surface at the end of bone; i.e. lateral condyle of femur

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facet

smooth, flat, slightly concave or convex articular surface; i.e. superior articular facet of vertebra

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head

usually rounded articular projection supported on neck (constricted portion) or bone; head of femur

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crest

prominent ridge or elongated projection; iliac crest of hip bone

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epicondyle

typically roughened projection above condyle; medial epicondyle of femur

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line

long, narrow ridge or border (less prominent than crest); i.e. linea aspera of femur

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spinous proces

sharp, slender projection; spinous process of vertebra

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trochanter

very large projection; i.e. trochanter of femur

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tubercle

variably sized rounded projection; greater tubercle of humerus

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tuberosity

variably sized projection that has a rough, bumpy surface; ischial tuberosity of hip bone

28

skull

bony framework of the head

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cranial bones

form the cranial cavity, which encloses and protects the brain

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facial bones

form the face; two nasal bones, two maxillae, two zygomatic bones, the mandible, two lacrimal bones, two palatine bones, two inferior nasal conchae, and the vomer

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frontal bone

forms the forehead, roofs of the orbits and most the anterior part of the cranial floor

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supraorbital margin

at the superior border of the orbits, the frontal bone thickens (Forms the supraorbital margin)

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parietal bones (2)

form the greater portion of the sides and roof of the cranial cavity

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temporal bones (2)

form the inferior lateral aspects of the cranium and part of the cranial floor

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zygomatic arch

the zygomatic process of the temporal bone and the temporal process of the zygomatic bone form the zygomatic arch

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external auditory meatus

ear canal; directs sound waves into the ear

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mastoid process

rounded projection of the mastoid portion of the temporal bone posterior and inferior to the external auditory meatus

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internal auditory meatus

the opening through which the facial nerve and the vestibulocochlear nerve pass

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occipital bone

forms the posterior part and most of the base of the cranium

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foramen magnum

inferior part of the occipital bone

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occipital condyle

oval processes with convex surfaces on either side of the foramen magnum; join with depressions on the first cervical vertebra

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sphenoid bone

lies at the middle part of the base of the skull; keystone of the cranial floor since it articulates with all other cranial bones (holds them together)

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optic foramen

where the optic nerve and ophthalmic artery pass into the orbit

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ethmoid bone

delicate bone located in the anterior part of the cranial floor medial to the orbits and is sponge-like in appearance

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superior and middle nasal concha

two thin scroll shaped projections lateral to the nasal septum

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facial bones

14 total (2 nasal bones, 2 maxillae, 2 zygomatic bones, mandible, 2 lacrimal bone, 2 palatine bones, 2 inferior nasal concha, vomer

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nasal bones

small flattened rectangular bones that form the bridge of the nose

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lacrimal bones

smallest bones of the face; form a part of the medial wall of each orbit

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palatine bones

L shaped bones; form the posterior portion of the hard palate, part of the floor and lateral wall of the nasal cavity, small portion of the floors of the orbits

50

lacrimal fossa

a vertical tunnel formed with the maxilla, that houses the lacrimal sac

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inferior nasal conchae

scroll like bones; form a part of the inferior lateral wall of the nasal cavity and project into the nasal cavity

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vomer

forms inferior portion of the bony nasal septum

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maxillae

jawbones

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zygomatic bones

cheekbones

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mandible

lower jawbone

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the body of the mandible

curved horizontal portion of the mandible

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the ramus

two perpendicular portions of the mandible

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angle of the mandible

area where each ramus meets the body

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condylar process

articulates with the mandibular fossa and articular tubercle of the temporal bone

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temporomandibular joint

articulation of the mandibular fossa and articular tubercle of the temporal bone

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coronoid process

temporalis muscles attach

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alveolar process

ridgelike arch containing the alveoli for the mandibular teeth

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nasal septum

perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone, vomer and septal cartilage

64

orbits

eye socket

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vertebra

series of bone composing the spinal cord

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invertebral disc

found between bodies of vertebrae from the second cervical vertebra; form strong joints; permit movements of the vertebral column; absorb vertical shock

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normal curves of the spine

four normal bends in the spine; cervical and lumbar curves (bulging out); thoracic and sacral curves (cupping in)

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vertebral body

weight bearing part of the vertebra; provides attachment of cartilaginous invertebrate discs

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vertebral arch

vertebral body and arch surround spinal cord

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vertebral (spinal) canal

the vertebral foramina (holes) of all vertebra form the spinal canal

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intervertebral foramen

hole that permits passage of a single spinal nerve carrying info to and from the spinal cord

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transverse process

projects laterally on each side of the vertebral arch

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spinous process

projects posteriorly from the vertebral arch

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superior articular process

articulate (form joints) with the two inferior articular process of the vertebra immediately above them

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inferior articular process

articulate with two superior articular processes of the vertebra directly below them

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cervical vertebrae

C1-7 (top section of spine)

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atlas

first cervical vertebra inferior to the skull

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axis

second cervical vertebra

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dense/ ordontoid process

projects superiorly through the anterior portion of the vertebral foramen

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thoracic vertebra

T1-12 (upper mid section of the spine)

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lumbar vertebra

L1-5 (lower mid section of spine)

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sacrum

triangular bone formed by the union of 5 sacral vertebrae

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anterior sacral foramina

S1-5 (lower section of spine) 8 holes in the sacrum

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median sacral crest

ridge in the middle of the posterior (back) sacrum

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posterior sacral vertebrae

S1-5 (lower section of spine) 8 holes in sacrum

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sacral canal

continuation of vertebral cavity

87

sacroiliac joint

articulation with the ilium of each hip

88

coccyx

formed by fusion of 4 coccygeal vertebra (Co1-Co4)

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sternum

breastbone;

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manubrium

superior part of the sternum

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xiphoid process

inferior tip of the sternum

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suprasternal notch

depression on superior surface of sternum

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clavicular notch

articulate with medial ends of the clavicles

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body of the sternum

middle and largest part of the sternum

95

sternal angle

junction of manubrium and body

96

ribs

12 pairs; structural support to sides of the thoracic cavity

97

costal cartilage

hyaline cartilage that attaches ribs 1-7 to the sternum

98

true ribs

1-7; the ribs that have costal cartilage and attach directly to the sternum

99

false ribs

8-12; costal cartilages attach indirectly to the sternum or do not attach to the sternum at all

100

floating ribs

11-12; the costal carriages do not attach to the sternum at all

101

head

projection at posterior end of the rib that contains a pair of articular facets

102

neck

constricted portion of rib just lateral to the head

103

tubercle

knoblike structure on the posterior surface where neck joins body

104

body

main part of the rib

105

herniated disc/ slipped disc

if there is too much pressure on the invertebral discs; the nucleus can protrude posteriorly or into one of the adjacent vertebral bodies

106

spina bifida

laminae of L4 and or S1 fail to develop normally