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Flashcards in Chapter 7 Deck (41):
1

learning

a relatively permanent change in an organism's behaviour to experience

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associative learning

learning that certain events occur together. the event may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or response and its consequences (as in operant conditioning)

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conditioning

process of learning associations

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classical conditioning

a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events

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behaviourism

the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behaviour with our reference to mental processes. most research psychologists today agree with 1 but not 2

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unconditioned response (UR)

in classical conditioning, the unleaded, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salivation which food is in the mouth

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unconditioned stimulus (US)

in classical conditions, a stimulus that unconditionally- naturally and automatically- triggers a response

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conditioned response (CR)

in classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus

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conditioned stimulus (CS)

in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US), comes to triggers a conditioned response

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acquisition

in classical conditioning, the initial stage, when one links a neural stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response. in operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response

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higher-order conditioning

a procedure in which the CS in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neural stimulus, creating a second (often weaker) CS. ex) an animal that has learned that a tine predicts food might then learn that a light predicts the one and begins responding to the light alone (also called second-order conditioning)

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extinction

the demising of a CR; occurs in classical conditioning when an US does not follow a CS; occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced

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spontaneous recovery

the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished CR

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generalization

the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses

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discrimination

in classical conditioning, learned ability to distinguish between a CS and stimuli that do not signal an US

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respondent behaviour

behaviour that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus

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operant conditioning

at hype of learning in which behaviour is strengthen if followed by a reinforce or diminished if followed by a punisher

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operant behaviour

behaviour that operates on the environment, producing consequences

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law of effect

Thorndyke's principle that behaviours followed by favourable consequences become more likely, and the behaviours followed by unfavourable consequences become less likely

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operant chamber

in operant conditioning research, a chamber (also known as a skinner box) containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcement; attached devices record the animal's rate of bar pressing or key pecking

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shaping

an operated conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guides behaviour toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behaviour

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reinforcer

in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behaviour it follows

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positive reinforcement

increasing behaviours by presenting positive stimuli such as food. a positive reinforcement is any stimulus that, when presented after a response strengthen the response

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negative reinforcement

increasing behaviours by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock. a negative reinforcement is any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response

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primary reinforcer

ann innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need

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conditioned reinforcer

a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer, also known as a secondary reinforcer

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continuous reinforcement

reinforcing the desired response overtime it occurs

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partial (intermittent) reinforcement

reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower accosting of a response but much greater resistance to extinction that does continuous reinforcement

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fixed-ratio schedule

in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses

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variable-ratio schedule

in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses

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fixed-interval schedule

in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed

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variable-interval schedule

in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time interval

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punishment

an event that decreases the behaviour that it follows

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cognitive map

a mental representation of the layout of one's environment. ex) after exploring a maze, rats act as it they have learned a cognitive map of it

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latent learning

learning that occurs but is not apparent until these is an incentive to demonstrate it

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intrinsic motivation

a desire to perform a behaviour effectively for its own sake

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extrinsic motivation

a desire to perform a behaviour to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment

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observational learning

learning by observing others

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modeling

the process of observing and imitating a specific behaviour

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mirror neurons

frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. the brain's mirroring of another's action may enable imitation and empathy

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prosocial behaviour

positive, constructive, helpful behaviour. the opposite of antisocial behaviour