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Flashcards in Chapter 7 Deck (57):
1

Acid-alkali neutralization reactions

When an acid is mixed with an alkali in equal portions to neutralize each other and form water and salt

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Acids

Substances that have a pH below 7.0, taste sour

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Acid mantle

Protective barrier of lipids and secretions on the surface of the skin

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Air

The gaseous mixture that takes up earths atmosphere. Odorless, colorless. One part O one part N

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Alkalis

AKA bases. React w/acids to form salts. pH above 7.0. Tastes bitter. Turns litmus paper from red to blue

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Anion

An ion with a negative electrical charge

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Antioxidants

Used to stabilize skin care products by preventing oxidation that would otherwise cause a product to turn rancid and decompose. They are vitamins such a as A, C, and E which can be applied topically in products or taken internally to increase healthy body functions

8

Atoms

Smallest chemical components of an element that still retains the properties of that element

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Cation

Ion with a positive electrical charge

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Chemical change

Change in the chemical properties of a substance that is the result of a chemical reaction in which a new substance(s) are formed that have properties different from the original

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Chemical compounds

Combinations of two or more atoms of different elements United chemically with a fixed chemical composition, definite proportions and distinct properties

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Chemical properties

Those characteristics that can only be determined by chemical reaction and a chemical change in the identity of the substance

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Chemistry

Science that deals with the composition, structures and properties of matter and how matter changes under different conditions

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Combustion

Rapid oxidation of any substance accompanied by the production of heat and light

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Compound molecules

AKA compounds. A chemical combination of two or more atoms of different elements in definite proportions

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Element

The simplest form of matter

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Elemental molecules

Molecule containing two or more atoms of the same element in definite proportions

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Emulsions

An unstable physical mixture of two or more immiscible substances plus a special ingredient called an emulsifier

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Free radicals

Unstable molecules that cause inflammation, disease, and biochemical aging in the body, especially wrinkling and sagging of skin. Free radicals are super oxidizers that cause an oxidation reaction and produce a new free radical in the process that are created by highly reactive atoms or molecules

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Gases

Matter without a definite shape, size or volume. Takes shape of container

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Hydrogen

Colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. The lightest element known

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Hydrogen peroxide

Chemical compound of hydrogen and oxygen. A colorless liquid with a characteristic odor and a slightly acidic taste

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Hydrophilic

Water loving

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Hydroxide

An anion with one oxygen and one hydrogen atom

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Immicible

Liquids that don't like to mix

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Inorganic chemistry

The study of substances that are not and were never alive (no carbon)

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Ion

An atom or molecule that carries an electrical charge

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Ionization

The separation of an atom or molecule into pos or neg ions

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Lipophilic

Oil loving

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Liquids

Matter that has volume but no definite shape

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Logarithmic scale

A method of displaying data in multiples of 10

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Matter

Any substance that occupies space and has mass

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Miscible

Capable of being mixed; liquids that are mutually soluble. (Mix well)

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Molecule

Chemical combo of 2 or more atoms

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Nitrogen

Colorless, gaseous element that makes up 4/5 of the atmosphere

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Oil-in-water (O/W)

oil dispersed in water

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Organic chemistry

Study of substances that contain carbon

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Oxidation

Either the addition of oxygen or the loss of hydrogen

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Oxidation reduction

AKA redox. Chemical reaction in which the oxidation agent is reduced and the reducing agent is oxidized

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Oxidize

To combine or cause a substance to combine with oxygen

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Oxygen

Most abundant element on earth

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pH

Potential hydrogen. Relative degree of acidity and alkalinity of a substance

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pH scale

Used to measure the acidity and alkalinity of a substance. Ranges from 0-14. 7 is neutral. Below 7 is acidic; above 7 is alkaline

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Physical change

Change of physical properties

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Physical mixtures

Combination of two or more substances United physically, not chemically.

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Physical properties

Characteristics that San be determined with out a chemical reaction and that do not cause a chemical change in identity of substance

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Redox reactions

Chemical reaction in which oxidizing agent is reduced and the reducing agent is oxidized

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Reduction

The process through which oxygen is subtracted from or hydrogen is added to a substance through chemical reaction

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Solids

Definite size and shape and mass

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Solute

A substance that dissolves in solvent to form solution

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Solution

Uniform mixture of two or more miscible sundtances

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Solvent

Dissolves solute to form solution

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States of matter

The three different physical forms of matter: solid, liquid and gas.

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Surfactants

Acronym for surface active agent. Reduces surface tensions between skin and product to increase spreadability

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Suspensions

Unstable mixtures of two or more immiscible substances

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Water

Most abundant of all substances

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Water in oil (W/O) emulsion

Drops of water dispersed in oil