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Flashcards in chapter 7 Deck (75):
1

The atkinson-shiffon or multi-store model of memory

1. stimulus
2. sensory organs (eyes, ears)
3.sensory memory (short lived)
4. short-term memory (7-2 items, last 30 sec)
5.long-term memory (unlimited, not always accessible)

2

stores

retain info in memory without using it for any specific purpose

3

control processes

shift info from one memory store to another

4

attention

selects which info will be passed onto STM

5

encoding

the process of storing info in the LTM system

6

retrieval

brings info from LTM back into STM

7

sensory memory types

iconic- visual 1 sec
echoic-memory 5 sec

8

sensory memory

is a memory store that accurately holds perceptual info for a very brief amount of time

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short-term memory

memory store with limited capacity and duration (less than a min)

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chunking

organizing smaller units of info into larger, more meaningful units

11

long-term memory

holds info for extended periods of time, if not permanently

12

the whole report condition

people can only report back about 3-4 out of 12 letters

13

partial report condition -tone

row of letters, people can report 3-4 letters out of 4

14

serial position effect

recalling the first few items from a list and the last few items, but only an item or two from the middle

15

proactive interference

in which the first info learned occupies the memory

16

retroactive interference

most recently learned info overshadows older memory that have not yet made it into long term memory

17

phonological loop-keeping sound

based info active with rehearsal

18

rehearsal

repeating info until you do not need to remember it anymore

19

visuospatial sketchpad

for representing visual info and where objects are in space

20

feature binding

rather than representing objects as a collection of individual features ex) shape, texture, colour

21

episodic buffer

for representing combined auditory, visuospatial info, and knowledge from long-term memory store

22

central executive
phonological loop
episodic buffer
visuospatial sketchpad

watch traffic, now listen to radio, now watch traffic, call number
repeating 1800-555-HITS
understanding the context, bleeding info (need to pass car to pull over and call)
understanding the flow of traffic

23

working memory

a model of short-term memory remembering that includes a combination of memory components that can temporarily store small amounts of info for a short period of time

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central executive

control center of working memory, coordinates attention and the exchange of info among the three storage compounds

25

declarative memory or explicit memory

memories that involve our conscious minds and that we can describe verbally (general knowledge and life event memory)

26

non declarative memories or implicit memory

memory for previously learned skills and associated that guide our thoughts, feelings and actions automatically and unconsciously

27

episodic memory

memory for specific, autobiographical events in ones life

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semantic memory

general knowledge about the world that does not involve accessing the details of any particular life experience

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2 types of declarative memory

-episodic
-semantic

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procedural memory

patterns of muscle movements or knowledge on how to preform actions (pin poking hand)

31

classically conditioned responses

type of non-declarative memory

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2 types of non-declarative memory

-procedural
-classically conditioned responses

33

priming

involves an unconscious influence of an experience on our subsequent thoughts or behaviors -word-stem completion task

34

donald hebb

experience strengthens connection between neurons

35

long term potentiation LTP

when neurons across the brain fire at the same time, the bonds between them get stronger when one or more fire in the future, others will be more likely

36

consolidation

process of converting short-term memories into long-term memories in the brain

37

amnesia

profound loss of at least one form of memory inability to remember events occurring after brain altering experience

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anterograde

inability to form new memories for events occurring after a brain injury

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retrograde amnesia

condition in which memory for the events preceding trauma or injury is lost
retrograde-injury-anterograde

40

storage

refers to the time and manner in which info is retained between encoding and retrieval

41

encoding
storage
retrieval

info converted for storage
info retained in memory
info recovered from memory when needed

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rote learning

repeating info over and over again with the goal of remembering it for the long term

43

maintenance rehearsal

prolonging exposure to info by repeating it

44

craik and watkins study

4 digit number, say word over and over, then say 4 digit number, write down word

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elaborative rehearsal

thinking about the info we want to remember later in as many different ways as possible at the level of meaning

46

self-reference effect

thinking about info in a way that relates to ourselves and our other personal experiences

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survival processing

thinking about info in a way that relates to personal survival

48

levels of processing framework

-shallow processing
-intermediate processing
-deep processing

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shallow processing

thinking about the appearance of the word

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intermediate processing

thinking about what word sounds like

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deep processing

thinking about the meaning of the word

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encoding specificity principal

retrieval is most effective when it occurs in the same context as encoding

53

recognition

identifying something, such as an object, event, or a person as a thing that we have encountered or experienced before

54

recall

requires bringing to mind details about a prior experience

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encoding specificity principal

event you are trying to remember and the current situation

56

context dependent memory

supports successful remembering

57

state dependent learning

more successful remembering when persons internal state at the same time of encoding matches their internal state at the time of retrieval

58

mood dependent learning

remembering will be more successful when person's mood at the time of encoding matches their mood at the time of retrieval

59

flashbulb memory

extremely vivid and detailed memory about an event and the conditions surrounding how one learned about the event

60

mnemonic

technique intended to improve memory for specific info

61

method of loci

mnemonic that connects words to be remembered to locations along a familiar path

62

acronyms

pronounceable words whose letter represent the initials of an important phrase or set of items

63

first letter technique

uses the first letters of a set of items to spell out words that form a sentence

64

dual coding

occurs when info is stored in more than one form

65

testing effect

finding that taking practice tests can improve exam performance, even without additional studying

66

guided imagery

help people remember an event from earlier in their life by having them imagine what the type of event might have been like

67

imagination inflation

the more a person imagines what an event would be like, the more they would be convinced that it actually happened to them

68

schema

organized clusters of memories that constitute one's knowledge about events, objects, and ideas

69

deese-Roediger-McDermott DMR effect

people think they saw the critical lure on the list, even though it wasn't presented

70

false memory

remembering events that did not occur, or incorrectly recalling details of an event

71

power of a word

smashed, bumped, hit, contact

72

misinformation

when info occurring after an event becomes part of the memory for that event

73

imagination inflation

increased confidence in a false memory of an event following repeated imagination of the event

74

recovered memory

memory of a traumatic event that is suddenly recovered after blocking the memory of that event for a long period of time

75

recovered memory controversy

heated debate among psychologists about the validity of recovered memories