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Flashcards in Chapter 7 Deck (152):
1

Paired bones located on the sides of the sacrum and coccygeal bones in the pelvis and join together in front of the symphysis pubis

Hip

2

Upper part, called ala (wing), lower part, called the body.

Ilium

3

Iliac crest is palpable and can be used for ______

Red bone marrow

4

Has a body and a ramus and joins the ilium and pubic bone at acetabulum

Ischium

5

Body, as well as a superior and inferior ramus.

Pubis

6

Part of vertebral column that's located in the pelvis

Sacrum

7

Ligaments-Extends between the ischial spine and the sacrum, enclosed greater sciatic notch and converts to greater sciatic foramen

Sacrospinous ligament

8

Ligaments: Extends between the ischial tuberosity and the sacrum

Sacrotuberous ligament

9

Sacrospinous and sacrotuberous ligaments cross each other and form lesser ________, which obturator internus muscles and pudendal nerve and vessels pass.

Sciatic foramen

10

Covers obturator foramen but leaves a small opening called obturator canal

Obturator membrane

11

Piriformis muscle and sciatic nerve pass through this foramen.

Greater sciatic foramen

12

Fibrocartilage tissue between the symphysial surfaces of the pubic bones, reinforced by superior and inferior pubic ligaments

Symphysis pubis

13

Sacrum articulates with hip bones on both sides at sacroiliac joints, reinforced by several ligaments called

Dorsal, ventral, interosseous sacroiliac ligaments

14

Important and strong ligament, lies between transverse process if lumbar vertebra and the iliac crest, supports connection of vertebrae to the hip bone

Iliolumbar ligament

15

Measured across middle of the pelvic inlets

Transverse diameter

16

Distance between right sacroiliac joint and opposite iliopubic eminence

Oblique diameter

17

Between upper border of symphysis pubis to middle of promontory

Anatomical conjugate

18

Subtracting approximately 1.5 from diagonal conjugate

True conjugate

19

Female pelvis

-pelvic inlet is wider and oval shaped from side to side
-pelvic outlet is wider, ischial tuberosities are shorter, farther apart, and everted
-iliac fossa is shallower
-pubic arch is greater than 90
-ischial spine points posteriorly
-obdurate foramen is oval

20

Male pelvis

Pelvic inlet (brim)-is more narrow and heart shaped
-pelvic outlet is more narrow, ischial tuberosities are longer, sharper and point more medially
-ilia fossa is deeper
-pubic arch is less than 90 degrees
-acetabulum is diverted laterally
-ischial spine points medially
-obturator foramen is round

21

Between two ischial spines and is crucial distance

Interspinous diameter

22

Distance between inferior border of symphysis pubis to inferior border of sacrum

Median conjugate

23

Extends from inferior border of symphysis pubis to tip of coccyx, distance is variable due to the flexibility and slight movement of coccyx

Straight conjugate

24

Diameters between lateral aspects of the two iliac crests

Intercristal distance

25

Between superior border of symphysis pubis and L5 spinous process

External conjugate

26

Long bone in the upper leg that consists of a body, neck, a proximal end, and a distal end

Femur

27

Neck of the femur follows the head, connecting to the body (shaft) at a 126 angle in adults called the ______. Angle is usually wider (145) in _____. And smaller (126) in ______.

Angle of inclination. Small children and older people

28

A ball and socket synovial joint, located between head of femur and acetabulum of hip bone

Hip joint

29

Large sesamoid bone that develops in the tendon of the muscles

Patella

30

Tissue between patella and tibial tuberosity

Patellar ligament

31

Medial and lateral collateral ligaments, laterally and idiotically tract supports

Joint capsule support the joint

32

Intrinsic ligaments, anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments, meniscofemoral ligaments, and transverse ligament of knee that's beneath the ____

Fibrous capsule

33

Anterior cruciate ligament prevents

Backward slipping of the femur, produces medial rotation, and locks the knee in extension

34

Posterior cruciate ligament prevents

Femur from forward slipping

35

Long bone that has a body (shaft), proximal end, and a distal end, is one of the bones of the lower leg

Tibia

36

Deltoid ligament medially, anterior and posterior talofibular ligamens and calcaneofibular ligament support

ankle joint

37

Since Plexus passes close to the abdominal and pelvic structures, more prone to damage. Trauma following surgery such as hysterectomy, during labor, may injure plexus

Lumbosacral plexus syndrome

38

Quadriceps femoris function

Quadriceps femoris is the powerful extensor of the knee joint, rectus femoris can also flex the hip joint

39

Quadriceps femoris innervation

Femoral nerve

40

Quadriceps femoris contains

Rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, vastus medialis

41

Sartorius function

Acts on two joints, flexor at both hip and knee joints

42

Sartorius innervation

Femoral nerve

43

Illiopsoas function

Strong flexor of the hip, psoas major can flex the body laterally

44

Illiopsoas innervation

Lumbar plexus innervated the psoas muscle, femoral nerve innervates the illacus nerve

45

Iliopsoas muscles contains

Psoas major (deep abdominal muscles), illacus muscle

46

Adductors of thigh are

Gracilis, pectineus, adductor brevis, longus and Magnus

47

Gracilis function

Adductor of the thigh, flexor at the hip and knee joints

48

Adductor longus function

Adduction of the thigh, hip flexion

49

Adductor brevis function

Adductor of thigh and flexor of hip joint

50

Adductor brevis and longus innervation

Obturator nerve

51

Pectineus function

Adductor of thigh and flexor of hip joint

52

Pectineus innervation

Femoral nerve and obturator nerve

53

Adductor Magnus function

Extensor of hip (thigh) and strong adductor of the leg at th hip joints. Part of the adductor Magnus inserts to the Linea aspera is a lateral rotator of the thigh, part of it inserts to adductor tubercle and is medial rotator of the leg

54

Adductor Magnus innervation

Adductor part innervates tibial nerve and Linea aspera innervated obturator

55

Dorsal hip muscles are

Gluteus Maximus, tensor fasciae latae, gluteus medius and gluteus minimus

56

Gluteus Maximus function

Powerful extensor of hip joints and lateral rotator and abductor of the hip. Adduction of the hip and is active in rising, sitting and climbing

57

Gluteus Maximus innervation

Inferior gluteal nerve

58

Tensor fasciae latae function

Abduction, medial rotation, and flexion of thigh n supports the knee joint

59

Tensor fasciae latae innervates

Superior gluteal nerve

60

Gluteus medius function

Abduction and medial rotation of the thigh,also helps in lateral rotation and flexion of hip. Gluteus medius keeps pelvis level when opposite leg is raised

61

Gluteus medius innervation

Superior gluteal nerve

62

Gluteus minimus innervation

Superior gluteal nerve

63

Deep muscles of gluteal region are

Piriformis, obturator Internus, superior and inferior gemellus, and quadratus femoris

64

Piriformis muscle function

Works as a lateral rotator and abductor of the thigh, keeps femur head in acetabulum

65

Piriformis innervation

Nerve to piriformis

66

Obturator internus innervation

Nerve to obturator internus

67

Superior and inferior gemellus innervation

Superior gemellus-nerve to obturator internus
Inferior gemellus-nerve to quadratic femoris

68

Quadratus function and innervation

Lateral rotation and addiction of the hip. Lateral rotators of thigh at stronger than the medial rotators and control balance. Nerve to quadratus femoris

69

Hamstring muscles functions

Flexors of knee joint, extensors of hip joint

70

Biceps femoris function

Long head is involved in extension of hip, muscle flexor and lateral rotator at knee joint

71

Biceps femoris innervation

Long head is innervated by tibial nerve, short head is common peroneal nerve

72

Semitendinosis and semimembranosus function and nerve

Extension at hip joint, strong flexion and medial rotation at the knee joint . Tibial nerve

73

Tibialis anterior function and innervation

Dorsiflexion and supination of the foot at the ankle joint. Deep peroneal nerve

74

Extensor hallucis longus function and innervation

Dorsiflexion of the first toe and deep peroneal nerve

75

Extensor digitorium longus function and innervation

Dorsiflexion of the foot and corresponding digits and deep peroneal nerve

76

Peroneus tertius

Extends to base of 5th metatarsal, helps in pronation of foot

77

Gastrocnemius,plantaris, and soleus muscles innervation

Tibial nerves

78

Gastrocnemius function

Active for fast movement (white fiber types)

79

Soleus function

Active in hard and sustained motion (red fiber type)

80

Popliteus function and innervation

Involved in flexion of knee, unlocking of knee joint, medial rotation of leg. Tibial nerve

81

Flexor digitorium longus, tibalis posterior and flexor hallucis longus innervation

Tibial nerve

82

Peroneus longus and brevis function and innervation

Pronation of the foot at subtalar and talo-calcaneo navicular joints. Superficial peroneal nerve

83

Extensor hallucis brevis function and innervation

Dorsiflexion of Big toe. Deep peroneal nerve

84

Extensor digitorium brevis function and innervation

Dorsiflexion of digits. Deep peroneal nerve

85

Abductor hallucis, flexor digitorium brevis, abductor digit minimi function and innervation

Different branches of medial and lateral plantar nerves

86

Quadratus plantae innervation

Lateral plantar nerve

87

Lumbricals function and innervation

Plantar flexion of corre. Digits. Medial plantar nerve to medial lumbricals and lateral plantar nerve to other lumbricals

88

Flexor hallucis brevis innervation

Medial plantar nerve

89

Adductor hallucis innervation

Lateral plantar nerve

90

Flexor digit minimi brevis innervation

Lateral plantar nerve

91

Plantar interossei muscle function

Adductors of digits

92

Dorsal interossei muscles function

Abductors of digits

93

Pulsation can be felt at

Anterior tibial artery and dorsal artery of foot

94

Superior and inferior gluteal arteries originate indirectly from

Internal iliac artery

95

Which artery leaves through infrapiriformis hiatus and enters the less sciatic foramen , supplies perineum by passing through alcocks canal?

Internal pudendal artery

96

Indirect branch of internal iliac artery that passes through obturator canal and supplies lower limb muscles and other anterior branch structures , is what artery?

Obturator artery

97

Very important blood supply for head of demure, especially in children, and its an acetabular branch, artery?

Obturator artery

98

Iliolumbar supplies

Psoas muscle and other structures

99

External iliac artery continues as ______, passes beneath inguinal ligament and through lacuna vasorum.

Femoral artery

100

Femoral artery gives off some superficial branches of arteries______

Epigastric artery, circumflex iliac artery, external pudendal artery all supply abdominal wall and others

101

Largest branch of femoral artery is

Deep femoral artery

102

Femoral artery gives off 3-5 perforating branches that pierce and supply

Adductor and dorsal muscles

103

Femoral artery continues downward into hunters canal and passes to _______ region behind the knee through adductor hiatus, where name changes to______ artery

Popliteal region, popliteal

104

Before getting into adductor hiatus , femoral artery gives of descending ______ artery

Genicular

105

Genicular arteries branch off from ______ artery

Popliteal

106

Popliteal artery branches off to _______ artery behind and below knee

Posterior and anterior tibial arteries

107

Anterior tibial artery turns into ______ nerve

Deep peroneal nerve

108

Sole of foot, lateral and medial _____ arteries branch from posterior tibial artery and join together and form deep plantar arch

Plantar

109

Plantar arch gives off the _____artery and these arteries branch off into proper ______ artery

Plantar metatarsal , proper plantar digital

110

Dorsal of foot, anterior ______ artery continues as dorsalis pedis artery,forms and arch with _____artery,continues as lateral tarsal artery to close arterial loop by joining the dorsalis pedis

Tibial artery, arcuate

111

Dorsal metatarsal arteries branches off from arcuate artery and then give off _______ and supply foot

Dorsal metatarsal arteries

112

Two superficial veins of leg are

Great and small saphenous vein

113

Accompanied by small branches of ______, small saphenous veins lies....

Sural nerves

114

Small saphenous veins to drain into _____ vein, in popliteal region

Popliteal

115

Great saphenous vein runs on medial aspect of leg and the thigh, draining into ____ vein

Femoral

116

Great saphenous vein is accompanied by ______ nerve

Saphenous

117

Deep vein drains into popliteal vein and the femoral vein and from there into the _____ vein

External iliac vein

118

Blood of gluteal vein and obturator vein drains into _____ vein

Internal iliac

119

Lymph of lower limb is drained by superficial and deep _____ vessels

Lymphatic

120

Lymphatic vessels first drain into lymph nodes in the popliteal and Inguinal regions, then into deep lymphatic vessels of _____ cavity into thoracic duct.

Abdominal

121

Superficial lymphatic vessels accompany _____

Great and small saphenous veins

122

Deep lymphatic vessels accompany deep _____vessels

Blood

123

Superficial popliteal and inguinal lymph nodes receive _____

Medial and lateral superficial lymphatics

124

Deep popliteal and inguinal nodes receive ______

Deep lymphatics

125

From inguinal nodes, lymphatics travel into the _____ and _____ nodes, moving into the lateral aortic and lumbar lymph nodes into cisterns chyli and finally drain into _____ duct. The _____ follow the same path

External iliac and common iliac nodes, thoracic , superficial gluteal lymphatics

126

Lymphatics of Deep gluteal region drained by _____ nodes, into internal iliac node and then into _____ iliac node. It then follow lateral ____ and lumbar nodes into cisterna chyli

Gluteal lymph, colon, aortic

127

Skin is innervated by branches of

Lumbosacral plexus

128

Lateral femoral cutaneous nerve and anterior femoral cutaneous nerve innervated the skin of

Anterior thigh

129

Cutaneous branch of obturator nerve innervats small part of the

Thigh

130

Leg is innervated medially by the _____ nerve, while lateral aspect of leg innervated by ____ nerve

Saphenous, sural

131

Superficial peroneal nerve innervated the _____ of foot, except area between big toe, innervated by terminal branches of ____ nerve

Dorsum, deep peroneal

132

The _____ nerve innervated lateral aspect of foot

Sural

133

Gluteal region innervated by

Superior and medial Cluneal nerve

134

Skin of posterior thigh region is innervated by the _____ nerve, although laterally by _____ nerve and medial by ______

Posterior femoral cutaneous, Lateral cutaneous, obturator nerve

135

Posterior leg innervated by ______ nerve and by _____ nerve and skin of sole of foot innervated by cutaneous branches of _____ nerves

Sural, saphenous, medial and lateral plantar

136

Femoral triangle

Sartorious muscles, adductor longus , inguinal ligament , iliopsoas muscle, and pectineus.

137

Contents of femoral ring

Femoral artery and genitofemoral nerve. Femoral vein. Lymph nodes and areolar tissue (femoral canal), the Rosenmuller node(drain into glans penis and clitoris)

138

Femoral hernia

Painful, more in female, below and lateral to pubic tubercle

139

Touch and check _____, if swollen there's an infection and can create edema

Inguinal lymph nodes

140

Femoral artery is located and more superficial than vein and is clinically used for

Angiography via catherization

141

Femoral sheath

Cut it and its femoral ring. It's a thin membrane and contains femoral artery, vein and lymphatics .

142

Deep into anterior femoral region, the ______ is visible just beneath sartorius

Adductor or Hunters canal

143

_____ thickest nerve of the body and passes through infrapiriformis hiatus, together with posterior femoral cutaneous nerve, pudendal nerve, and internal pudendal vessels.

Sciatic

144

Osgoodschalttar disease

Extension of knee, thin membrane (tiberoseum), may be raised and cause pain, oversion of tibial tuberosity

145

Coxa vara

Weight bearing line, middle hip joint (inside knee, meniscus is town), instability in walking

146

Foot drop

Common peroneal nerve damage of hit to lateral of knee, head of fibula

147

Waddling gait

Limping on leg

148

Positive trendenlenberg sign

Pelvis pops, one side damage (raise leg), not keep pelvis level

149

Region for injection_____, no blood , inject and go more_____

Upper lateral quadrant, laterally

150

Bypass surgery

Great saphenous vein

151

Can't dorsiflexion

Compartment syndrome

152

Head fibula is damaged, pronation and inversion is compromised

Common coronal nerve damaged