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Flashcards in Chapter 7 Deck (86):
1

Make their own food

Autotrophs (producers)

2

Structures of photosynthesis

Stomata and chloroplasts

3

Small openings in leaves that allow carbon dioxide to enter and oxygen leave

Stomata

4

Photosynthetic organelle of plants

Chloroplast

5

Structures of chloroplast

Stroma, thylakoids, grana

6

Fluid inside chloroplast

Stroma

7

Photosynthesis begins in this membrane

Thylakoids

8

Stack of thylakoids

Grana

9

Pigment molecules in the thylakoid membrane are __

Molecules that will capture the sunlight

10

Chemical equation of photosynthesis

6 CO2 + 6H2O >>sun>> 6 O2 + C6H12O6

11

Process by which plants and some other organisms harness solar energy and converts it into the chemical energy of a carbohydrate (glucose for the most part)

Photosynthesis

12

What three things happen in the process of photosynthesis

1. Carbon dioxide is reduced and water is oxidized
2. Solar energy is converted to ATP
3.Glucose is used for food and is a building block for other molecules

13

Entire spectrum of energy that is released by the sun; travels In wavelengths

Electromagnetic spectrum

14

Particles that behave like Waze, distance from one truck to another

Wavelength

15

Wavelength is abbreviated the Greek letter __

Lambda

16

Short lambda = __

High energy

17

Long lambda = __

Low energy

18

__ have the shortest lambda and highest energy, they destroy DNA in cells, can kill or cause cancer

Gama rays

19

__ can cause cancer

X-rays

20

__ Energy is getting less, they are damaging but not as bad as x-rays

Ultraviolet rays

21

Melanin protect skin from this __

Ultraviolet rays

22

If you defract this it'll change colors, each color has it different wavelength; not dangerous

Visible light

23

Visible light contains __

Just the right amount of energy for photosynthesis

24

Night vision

Infrared

25

The types of waves that are sunlight

Ultraviolet rays, visible light, infrared

26

The different types of wavelengths (most dangerous to least)

Gamma rays, x-rays, ultraviolet rays, visible light, infrared, microwaves, radio waves

27

For radio waves, ___ are wavelengths of the particle radio wave hitting the antenna

The numbers (95.9)

28

Packets of light energy that moves

Photons

29

Two types of pigments

Major pigment and accessory pigment

30

Chlorophyll a; most abundant in plants, it is green

Major pigment

31

Why is major pigment green?

All other colors get absorbed and green gets reflected

32

Types of accessory pigments

Chlorophyll B, carotenoids, xanthophyll

33

What color is chlorophyll B

Greenish yellow

34

What color are carotenoids

Red, yellow, orange (carotene)

35

What color is xanthophyll

Yellow

36

As daylight gets shorter, chlorophyll b __

Breaks down

37

What is NADP+

Coenzyme whose function is to transport electrons

38

Having a P in the name means it's in __

Photosynthesis

39

When NADP+ accepts __ it becomes __

An electron
NADPH

40

Two sets of reactions in photosynthesis

Light reactions (light dependent reactions) and dark reactions (light independent reactions) (Calvin cycle)

41

Two things light reactions have to do

Have to come first and have to occur in daylight

42

Where do light reactions occur

Thylakoid membrane

43

Three things that happen in light reactions

Solar energy is absorbed, water is split, oxygen is released

44

Products of light reactions

ATP and NADPH

45

Dark reactions are also known as __

Carbon cycle or Calvin cycle

46

Where do dark reactions (Calvin cycle) occur

Stroma

47

What happens in the dark reactions (Calvin cycle)

CO2 is absorbed and glucose is made

48

Dark reactions to use __ to make glucose

ATP and NADPH

49

Dark reactions do not require __

Sunlight

50

Consist of a pigment complex that has pigment molecules and electron acceptor molecules

Photosystems

51

When a __ excites an electron, it cause a __ which increases __

Pigment molecule
Higher energy level
Potential energy

52

Photosystem II comes __

First

53

Steps of light reactions

1. Photosystem II
2. Electron transport chain
3. Photosystem I P700

54

What happens in photosystem II

A pigment molecule absorbs a photon of light, which is passed on until it reaches a reaction center (P680)

55

What is the reaction center of photosystem II

P680

56

What happens to an electron in photosystem II

1. An electron is excited
2. An electron is accepted in electron acceptor
3. Electron is replaced by water (H2O is split)

57

Series of exergonic reactions (releasing energy)

Electron transport chain

58

As the electron transport chain happens, __ is made by __ called __

ATP
An enzyme
ATP synthase

59

ATP made from the electron transport chain is made on __

The stroma side

60

What happens in photosystem I

1. The excited electron is replaced by the electron from photosystem II.
2. Feel like trending goes through A short electron transport chain which converts NADP+ + H+ >>> NADPH

61

The NADPH made in photosystem one is made on __

The stroma side

62

Photosystem II makes __

ATP

63

Photosystem one makes

NADPH

64

ATP and NADPH are necessary for __

The Calvin cycle

65

Uses CO2 that has diffused in from air, uses ATP and NAT pH to make G3P

Calvin cycle

66

Steps of the Calvin cycle

1. Carbon fixation
2. Reduction of carbon dioxide
3. Regeneration of RuBP

67

How does carbon fixation fix carbon dioxide

CO2 + 5C >> 6C
CO2 comes in a combines the five carbon compound called RuBP

68

The enzyme that fixes RuBP is called __

RUBISCO

69

After CO2 combines with the five carbon compound (RuBP), a __ is produced, then splits into __, which are abbreviated __

6C molecule
2 (3C) molecules
3-PG

70

Reduction of CO2

6 ATP and 6 NADPH are used to reduce 6 molecules of 3PG to produce 6 G3P

71

Of the 6 G3P, __ is the __ of photosynthesis

1 G3P molecule (3C)
Net product

72

On the reduction of CO2, __ remain in the Calvin cycle

5 G3P (15C)

73

__ G3P (__C) = __ C (reduction of CO2)

6 G3P (3C) = 18 C

74

__ stay in the cycle (in reduction of CO2)

15C

75

Regeneration of RuBP (5C)

15C rearranged to form 3 RuBP's (uses ATP)

76

Summarize the Calvin cycle

In order to make one glucose molecule, Calvin cycle must turn 6 times, it uses 6 CO2, 18 ATP molecules, and 12 NADPH molecules. This occurs in the stroma and doesn't require light

77

Types of adaptations

C3, C4, CAM plants

78

Adaptation of C3

C3 usually undergoes photosynthesis; RUBISCO fixes CO2 to RuBP but when weather gets hot and dry, RUBISCO is going to add oxygen to RuBP instead of adding CO2; glucose is not produced

79

Example of C3 adaptation

Trees, flowers

80

Adding oxygen to RuBP

Photorespiration

81

C3 adaptation uses

Photorespiration

82

Adaptations of C4 plants

Saves water without shutting down photosynthesis; the CO2 is fixed to a 4C molecule, this allows it to fix to CO2 even though the concentration is low

83

Example of C4 plants

Corn and sugar cane

84

Adaptations of CAM plants

Adapted to very dry climate- close stomata all day long to preserve water, open up at night to allow CO2 in, it is fixed to a 4C

85

CAM plants are released to __ in day

Calvin

86

Example of CAM plants

Pineapple, cactus, aloe, jade