Chapter 7 Flashcards Preview

psychology > Chapter 7 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 7 Deck (72):
1

What's interleaving practice?

provides and opportunity for forgetting, which maximizes the value of each instance of practice

2

What are control processes?

Shift information from one memory store to another

3

What's the cognitive resolution?

The study of internal mental processes became an acceptable target for research

4

What are the sensory organs (Atkinson-Shiffron Model of Memory)?

-Transduction from physical energy (sensation) into neural impulses (perception)

5

What's the sensory memory (Atkinson ...)?

(limitless but short lived) ->forgetting (is a memory store that accurately holds perceptual information for a very brief amount of time)

6

What's attention?

helps select a portion of the sensory memory for further processing

7

What's short term memory (Atkinson...)?

(7 (can remember 7 items)+ or - 2 items last 30 seconds)->forgetting
-Later, some information can be retrieved
-Information is rehearsed
-Some information is encoded into long-term memory

8

What's long-term memory (Atkinson)?

(unlimited but not always accessible)->forgetting

9

What's rehearsal?

or repeating information until you don’t need to remember it anymore

10

What's the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon?

when you are able to retrieve similar sounding words or words that start with the same letter but can’t quite retrieve the word you actually want

11

What's the iconic memory?

visual sensory store (duration is no more than 1 second)

12

What's the echoic memory?

auditory sensory store (duration is no more than 5 seconds)

13

What's the world report condition?

-In the world report condition, people can only back about 3-4 letters out of 12
But… it could be that sensory memory for the other letters disappears during the time it takes to report the first few letters.

14

What's the partial report condition?

-In the partial report condition, people can report back about 3-4 letters out of 4.

15

What's change blindness?

It can be easier when the images are presented simultaneously, but still somewhat challenging

16

What's chunking?

Organizing smaller units of information into larger more meaningful units
GIENRKLPWWYTQACX (not easy to chance into larger groupings)
-almost impossible to recite back in the same order

17

What's the serial position effect?

-If someone gave a list of a bunch of items, people ill have a tendency to remember the first few words and last few words

18

What's the primary effect?

Remembering the first few words

19

What's the recency effect?

Remembering the last few words

20

What's proactive interference?

After hearing the first four words on the list, proactive interference made it difficult to remember additional information

21

What's retroactive interference?

After hearing the last three words, retroactive interference made it difficult to remember the preceding words

22

What's short-term memory considered?

working memory

23

What's the working memory?

a model of short-term remembering that includes a combination of memory components that can temporarily store small amounts of information for a short period of time

24

What's the central executive?

Is for coordinating the function of the three storage systems and directing attention to sensory inputs
-Watch traffic, now listen to radio, now watch traffic, call that number

25

What's the phonological loop?

Is for keeping sound-bred information active with rehearsal
-repeating to self
-phone number

26

What's the word length effect?

The length of a word has an effect on the likelihood on which you’ll remember those words

27

What's the episodic buffer?

Is for representing combined auditory, visual spatial information, and knowledge from long-term memory store
-Understanding the context, blending information
-I need to pass this car so I can pull over and find my phone to call that number

28

What's the visuospatial sketchpad?

Is for representing visual information and where objects are in space
-Understanding the flow of traffic

29

What's feature binding?

-Thanks to feature binding, the V-S Sketchpad seems to represent Whole Objects… rather than representing objects as a collection of individual features (e.g. shape, texture, & colour)

30

What's declarative (or explicit) memory?

memories that involve our conscious minds and that we can describe verbally

31

What's non-declarative (or implicit) memory?

memory fro previously learned skills and associations that guide our thoughts, feelings, and actions automatically and unconsciously
-Non-declarative memory includes all of the unconscious influences in memory…
and there is a considerable amount of knowledge below the surface of our conscious minds

32

What's episodic memory?

Memory for specific, autobiographical events in one’s life

33

What's semantic memory?

General knowledge about the world that does not involve accessing the details of any particular life experience

34

What's procedural memory?

knowledge about how to perform actions

35

What's classically conditioned responses?

We talked about these when we talked about learning principles

36

What's priming?

priming involves an unconscious influence of an experience on our subsequent thoughts or behaviours
Word-stem completion task
BU_____
VI______
HA______
TU_____
PE______
-What words people see earlier in the session will influence how they complete the word stems… even when they can’t remember having seen the words earlier in the experiment

37

Who's Donald Hebb?

provided the basic mechanism for memory
-famous pioneer neural scientist
-experience strengthens the connection between neurons
-cells that fire together wire together

38

What's long-term potentiation?

When neurons across the brain fire at the same time, the bonds between them get stronger
-When one or more of the neurons fire in the future, the others will be also more likely to fire

39

What's consolidation?

Through long-term potentiation, the capacity to remember an event over the long-term relies on a binding together of strong connections between the pattern of neural firing that is associated with that experience.
-the process of converting short-term memory into long-term memories in the brain

40

What's anterograde amnesia?

An inability to remember any events occurring after some brain-altering experience

41

Who's H.M (Henry Molaison)?

-underwent brain surgery for epileptic seizures
-After his surgery in 1953, H.M lived another 60 years without bing able to consciously remember anything that happened during that time

42

What is the most critical area of the brain for the creation of new memories?

The hippocampus

43

What's memory storage?

refers to the time and manner in which information is retained between encoding and retrieval

44

What's retrograde amnesia?

impairment in remembering experiences that occurred for some period of time before the brain trauma or surgery

45

What's the Craik & Watkins study?

1. Participants read a four-digit number and tried to remember it
2. Meanwhile, they repeated a give word until the experimenter told them to stop (between 2 and 18 seconds)
3. As soon as the experimenter said “stop”, they tried to recall the number
4. After several trials of steps 1-3, participants were asked to recall the words that they had repeated to themselves
-The amount of time repeating words had no effect on the likelihood of remembering them
-Mindless repetition and rote learning is also called maintenance rehearsal

46

What's maintenance rehearsal?

supports keeping information active in working memory by repeating it, but is a poor way of achieving long-term remembering

47

What's elaborative rehearsal?

thinking about the information we want to remember later in as many different ways as possible at the level of meaning

48

What's shallow processing?

thinking about the appearance of the word

49

What's intermediate processing?

thinking about what a word sounds like

50

What's deep processing?

thinking about the meaning of a word

51

What's self-reference effect?

thinking about information in a way that relates to ourselves and our other personal experiences

52

What's survival processing?

thinking about information in a way that relates to personal survival

53

What's recognition?

identifying something, such as an object, event, or person, as a thing that we have encountered or experienced before

54

What's recall?

requires bringing to mind details about a prior experience
-Recall tends to be much more difficult than recognition
Ex. “List all of the people from your graduating class”
Vs.
“Identifying which people you graduated with from a series of photographs”

55

What are retrieval cues?

thinking about matches might cue a memory for almost starting a fire

56

What's encoding specificity?

Successful remembering depends on the degree of match between the current situation and the event that we are trying to remember

57

What is context dependent memory?

remembering a previous day at the zoo will be easier if you are at the zoo, than if you are not

58

What's state-dependent learning?

remembering will be more successful when a person’s internal state at the time of retrieval
-being under the influence of alcohol or marijuana will tend to be bad for learning… except when one can expect to also be under the influence at the time of retrieval

59

What's mood-dependent learning?

remembering will be more successful when a person’s mood (e.g., happy or sad) at the time of encoding matches their mood at the time of retrieval

60

What's elaborative rehearsal?

-experiences that are emotional ca be more memorable because they motivates more elaborative rehearsal
-emotional reactions after learning information can enhance successful remembering of that information

61

What are flashbulb memories?

-Are there events that we experience as so emotional and shocking that we will never forget any detail, no matter how much time passes
-Just as though we have taken a permanent mental photograph and stored it in memory
-Over time, people increasingly misremember details related to extreme events, like the 9/11 terrorist attacks, in the same way that their memory becomes less accurate over time for more typical events
-However, people are far more confident in the accuracy of their memory for extreme events

62

What are mnemonics?

methods for making information memorable

63

What's the method of loci?

making a map

64

What are acronyms?

letters that represent a word or a phrase

65

What's the first letter technique?

the first letter of each word to remember something

66

What's elaborative rehearsal?

The basic principle is: elaborative rehearsal (the more you think about anything, the more likely you will be to remember it)

-forgetting is irritating, but remembering isn’t always a picnic either

67

What's guided imagery?

a technique meant to help individuals remember an event from earlier in their life by having them imagine what that type of event might have been like

68

What's imagination inflation?

the more a person imagines what an event Ould be like, the more likely they will be to become convinced that the imagined event actually happened to them
-Doctoring photographs is a good way to fool people into thinking that they had an experience that they never actually had

-We are great at remembering the theme or ‘gist’ of an experience, but not as good at remembering all of the minor details

69

What are schemas?

general knowledge in memory about what features are typical for certain types of situations
“The procedure is quite simple.First, you arrange things into different groups. Of course, one pile may be sufficient, depending on how much there is to do. If you have to go somewhere else due to lack of facilities, that is the next step; otherwise, you are pretty well set. It is important not to overdo things. That is, it is better to do too few things at once than too many. At first the whole procedure will seem complicated”
“Soon, however, it will become jus another facet of life. After the procedure is completed, one arranges the materials into different groups again. Then they can be pt into their appropriate places. Eventually they will be used once more, and the whole cycle will have to be repeated”
-It’s about doing laundry, its much easier to figure out what they're talking about if you are told what the paragraph is about first

70

What's Deese-Roediger-Mcdermott (or DRM) effect?

-People think that they saw the critical lure on the list, even though it wasn’t presented

71

Who is Elizabeth Loftus?

most responsible for demonstrating that people are very capable for producing errors in events that occurred

72

What's the misinformation effect?

when biasing questions alter an eyewitness’s memory for the event that they witnessed