Flashcards in Chapter 7 Deck (72):
What's interleaving practice?
provides and opportunity for forgetting, which maximizes the value of each instance of practice
What are control processes?
Shift information from one memory store to another
What's the cognitive resolution?
The study of internal mental processes became an acceptable target for research
What are the sensory organs (Atkinson-Shiffron Model of Memory)?
-Transduction from physical energy (sensation) into neural impulses (perception)
What's the sensory memory (Atkinson ...)?
(limitless but short lived) ->forgetting (is a memory store that accurately holds perceptual information for a very brief amount of time)
helps select a portion of the sensory memory for further processing
What's short term memory (Atkinson...)?
(7 (can remember 7 items)+ or - 2 items last 30 seconds)->forgetting
-Later, some information can be retrieved
-Information is rehearsed
-Some information is encoded into long-term memory
What's long-term memory (Atkinson)?
(unlimited but not always accessible)->forgetting
or repeating information until you don’t need to remember it anymore
What's the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon?
when you are able to retrieve similar sounding words or words that start with the same letter but can’t quite retrieve the word you actually want
What's the iconic memory?
visual sensory store (duration is no more than 1 second)
What's the echoic memory?
auditory sensory store (duration is no more than 5 seconds)
What's the world report condition?
-In the world report condition, people can only back about 3-4 letters out of 12
But… it could be that sensory memory for the other letters disappears during the time it takes to report the first few letters.
What's the partial report condition?
-In the partial report condition, people can report back about 3-4 letters out of 4.
What's change blindness?
It can be easier when the images are presented simultaneously, but still somewhat challenging
Organizing smaller units of information into larger more meaningful units
GIENRKLPWWYTQACX (not easy to chance into larger groupings)
-almost impossible to recite back in the same order
What's the serial position effect?
-If someone gave a list of a bunch of items, people ill have a tendency to remember the first few words and last few words
What's the primary effect?
Remembering the first few words
What's the recency effect?
Remembering the last few words
What's proactive interference?
After hearing the first four words on the list, proactive interference made it difficult to remember additional information
What's retroactive interference?
After hearing the last three words, retroactive interference made it difficult to remember the preceding words
What's short-term memory considered?
What's the working memory?
a model of short-term remembering that includes a combination of memory components that can temporarily store small amounts of information for a short period of time
What's the central executive?
Is for coordinating the function of the three storage systems and directing attention to sensory inputs
-Watch traffic, now listen to radio, now watch traffic, call that number
What's the phonological loop?
Is for keeping sound-bred information active with rehearsal
-repeating to self
What's the word length effect?
The length of a word has an effect on the likelihood on which you’ll remember those words
What's the episodic buffer?
Is for representing combined auditory, visual spatial information, and knowledge from long-term memory store
-Understanding the context, blending information
-I need to pass this car so I can pull over and find my phone to call that number
What's the visuospatial sketchpad?
Is for representing visual information and where objects are in space
-Understanding the flow of traffic
What's feature binding?
-Thanks to feature binding, the V-S Sketchpad seems to represent Whole Objects… rather than representing objects as a collection of individual features (e.g. shape, texture, & colour)
What's declarative (or explicit) memory?
memories that involve our conscious minds and that we can describe verbally
What's non-declarative (or implicit) memory?
memory fro previously learned skills and associations that guide our thoughts, feelings, and actions automatically and unconsciously
-Non-declarative memory includes all of the unconscious influences in memory…
and there is a considerable amount of knowledge below the surface of our conscious minds
What's episodic memory?
Memory for specific, autobiographical events in one’s life
What's semantic memory?
General knowledge about the world that does not involve accessing the details of any particular life experience
What's procedural memory?
knowledge about how to perform actions
What's classically conditioned responses?
We talked about these when we talked about learning principles
priming involves an unconscious influence of an experience on our subsequent thoughts or behaviours
Word-stem completion task
-What words people see earlier in the session will influence how they complete the word stems… even when they can’t remember having seen the words earlier in the experiment
Who's Donald Hebb?
provided the basic mechanism for memory
-famous pioneer neural scientist
-experience strengthens the connection between neurons
-cells that fire together wire together
What's long-term potentiation?
When neurons across the brain fire at the same time, the bonds between them get stronger
-When one or more of the neurons fire in the future, the others will be also more likely to fire
Through long-term potentiation, the capacity to remember an event over the long-term relies on a binding together of strong connections between the pattern of neural firing that is associated with that experience.
-the process of converting short-term memory into long-term memories in the brain
What's anterograde amnesia?
An inability to remember any events occurring after some brain-altering experience
Who's H.M (Henry Molaison)?
-underwent brain surgery for epileptic seizures
-After his surgery in 1953, H.M lived another 60 years without bing able to consciously remember anything that happened during that time
What is the most critical area of the brain for the creation of new memories?
What's memory storage?
refers to the time and manner in which information is retained between encoding and retrieval
What's retrograde amnesia?
impairment in remembering experiences that occurred for some period of time before the brain trauma or surgery
What's the Craik & Watkins study?
1. Participants read a four-digit number and tried to remember it
2. Meanwhile, they repeated a give word until the experimenter told them to stop (between 2 and 18 seconds)
3. As soon as the experimenter said “stop”, they tried to recall the number
4. After several trials of steps 1-3, participants were asked to recall the words that they had repeated to themselves
-The amount of time repeating words had no effect on the likelihood of remembering them
-Mindless repetition and rote learning is also called maintenance rehearsal
What's maintenance rehearsal?
supports keeping information active in working memory by repeating it, but is a poor way of achieving long-term remembering
What's elaborative rehearsal?
thinking about the information we want to remember later in as many different ways as possible at the level of meaning
What's shallow processing?
thinking about the appearance of the word
What's intermediate processing?
thinking about what a word sounds like
What's deep processing?
thinking about the meaning of a word
What's self-reference effect?
thinking about information in a way that relates to ourselves and our other personal experiences
What's survival processing?
thinking about information in a way that relates to personal survival
identifying something, such as an object, event, or person, as a thing that we have encountered or experienced before
requires bringing to mind details about a prior experience
-Recall tends to be much more difficult than recognition
Ex. “List all of the people from your graduating class”
“Identifying which people you graduated with from a series of photographs”
What are retrieval cues?
thinking about matches might cue a memory for almost starting a fire
What's encoding specificity?
Successful remembering depends on the degree of match between the current situation and the event that we are trying to remember
What is context dependent memory?
remembering a previous day at the zoo will be easier if you are at the zoo, than if you are not
What's state-dependent learning?
remembering will be more successful when a person’s internal state at the time of retrieval
-being under the influence of alcohol or marijuana will tend to be bad for learning… except when one can expect to also be under the influence at the time of retrieval
What's mood-dependent learning?
remembering will be more successful when a person’s mood (e.g., happy or sad) at the time of encoding matches their mood at the time of retrieval
What's elaborative rehearsal?
-experiences that are emotional ca be more memorable because they motivates more elaborative rehearsal
-emotional reactions after learning information can enhance successful remembering of that information
What are flashbulb memories?
-Are there events that we experience as so emotional and shocking that we will never forget any detail, no matter how much time passes
-Just as though we have taken a permanent mental photograph and stored it in memory
-Over time, people increasingly misremember details related to extreme events, like the 9/11 terrorist attacks, in the same way that their memory becomes less accurate over time for more typical events
-However, people are far more confident in the accuracy of their memory for extreme events
What are mnemonics?
methods for making information memorable
What's the method of loci?
making a map
What are acronyms?
letters that represent a word or a phrase
What's the first letter technique?
the first letter of each word to remember something
What's elaborative rehearsal?
The basic principle is: elaborative rehearsal (the more you think about anything, the more likely you will be to remember it)
-forgetting is irritating, but remembering isn’t always a picnic either
What's guided imagery?
a technique meant to help individuals remember an event from earlier in their life by having them imagine what that type of event might have been like
What's imagination inflation?
the more a person imagines what an event Ould be like, the more likely they will be to become convinced that the imagined event actually happened to them
-Doctoring photographs is a good way to fool people into thinking that they had an experience that they never actually had
-We are great at remembering the theme or ‘gist’ of an experience, but not as good at remembering all of the minor details
What are schemas?
general knowledge in memory about what features are typical for certain types of situations
“The procedure is quite simple.First, you arrange things into different groups. Of course, one pile may be sufficient, depending on how much there is to do. If you have to go somewhere else due to lack of facilities, that is the next step; otherwise, you are pretty well set. It is important not to overdo things. That is, it is better to do too few things at once than too many. At first the whole procedure will seem complicated”
“Soon, however, it will become jus another facet of life. After the procedure is completed, one arranges the materials into different groups again. Then they can be pt into their appropriate places. Eventually they will be used once more, and the whole cycle will have to be repeated”
-It’s about doing laundry, its much easier to figure out what they're talking about if you are told what the paragraph is about first
What's Deese-Roediger-Mcdermott (or DRM) effect?
-People think that they saw the critical lure on the list, even though it wasn’t presented
Who is Elizabeth Loftus?
most responsible for demonstrating that people are very capable for producing errors in events that occurred