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Flashcards in Chapter 7 Deck (21):
1

Nancy was sentenced in a Canadian court to 5 months in prison and ordered to pay a $1000.00 fine by a judge alone. Due to her offence type she did not have the right to a trial by jury. Nancy was most likely charged with what type of offence?

a. Indictable Offence
b. Summary Offence
c. Inductive Offence
d. Hybrid Offence
e. None of the above

b. Summary Offence

2

The ________ is legislation in Canadian provinces and territories that outlines the eligibility criteria for jury service and how prospective jurors must be selected.
Select one:
a. Jury Summons
b. Criminal Code
c. Canadian Elections Act
d. Juries Act Correct
e. Emergencies Act

d. Juries Act

3

A study conducted by Ruva and LeVasseur (2012), which examined pretrial publicity, found that jurors who were given negative pretrial information were more likely to:
Select one:
a. Discuss unclear details in a way that supported the defence
b. Discuss unclear details in a way that supported the prosecution
c. Disregard instructions to ignore pretrial publicity
d. Both b and c
e. None of the above

d. Both b and c

4

Which of the following (if any) is not a method for increasing the likelihood of an impartial jury?
Select one:
a. Change of venue
b. Challenge for cause
c. Adjudication
d. Adjournment
e. All of the above are methods for increasing jury impartiality

c. Adjudication Correct

5

________ changes how the jury is selected and this process is unique to Canada.
Select one:
a. Change of venue
b. Challenge for cause
c. Adjudication
d. Adjournment
e. Impartiality

b. Challenge for cause Correct

6

The jury in the Robert Latimer case made a sentencing recommendation of one year in prison before eligibility for parole. This recommendation went against the mandatory minimum recommendation for second degree murder and was eventually overturned by the Court of Appeal. The actions of the jury are an example of:
Select one:
a. Chaos theory
b. Jury nullification
c. Impartiality
d. Jury bias
e. Jury tampering

b. Jury nullification

7

According to your textbook, which of the following (if any) is not a way that researchers can study juror and jury behaviour? (Note that this question is NOT referring to Canadian researchers specifically.)
Select one:
a. Post-trial interviews
b. Archival studies
c. Simulations
d. Field studies
e. All of the above are ways to study juror and jury behaviour

e. All of the above are ways to study juror and jury behaviour

8

The jury in the Robert Latimer case made a sentencing recommendation of one year in prison before eligibility for parole. This recommendation went against the mandatory minimum recommendation for second degree murder and was eventually overturned by the Court of Appeal. The actions of the jury are an example of:
Select one:
a. Chaos theory
b. Jury nullification
c. Impartiality
d. Jury bias
e. Jury tampering

b. Jury nullification

9

According to your textbook, which of the following (if any) is not a way that researchers can study juror and jury behaviour? (Note that this question is NOT referring to Canadian researchers specifically.)
Select one:
a. Post-trial interviews
b. Archival studies
c. Simulations
d. Field studies
e. All of the above are ways to study juror and jury behaviour

e. All of the above are ways to study juror and jury behaviour

10

Which of the following was a conclusion regarding juror note-taking described by Penrod and Heuer (1997)?
Select one:
a. Jurors' notes do not serve as a memory aid
b. Note-takers do not have an undue influence over those who do not take notes
c. Notes takers cannot keep up with the evidence as it is being presented
d. Note takers produce a distorted view of the case
e. All of the above are conclusions regarding juror note-taking described by Penrod and Heuer (1997)

b. Note-takers do not have an undue influence over those who do not take notes Correct

11

Hayes-Smith and Levett (2011) found an interaction between amount of _______ and ______.
Select one:
a. DNA evidence; Guilty verdicts
b. Amount of forensic evidence; Jury nullification
c. DNA evidence; Backfire effect
d. Amount of forensic evidence; Crime show-watching habits
e. None of the above

d. Amount of forensic evidence; Crime show-watching habits Correct

12

Sarah has been part of a jury on a controversial first-degree murder trial for over three months. Prior to deliberations, Sarah was leaning towards a guilty verdict. Once deliberations began, the 12 jurors had their first group discussion regarding the evidence. Sarah is now 100% certain of the defendant’s guilt and cannot be persuaded otherwise. Sarah’s attitude change is an example of:
Select one:
a. Leniency bias
b. Polarization
c. Nullification
d. Explanation modelling

b. Polarization Correct

13

Schuller and Hastings (2002) found that if a women’s sexual history is admitted into evidence during sexual assault cases, and accompanied by a judge’s instruction on how to interpret said evidence, the sexual history is used by jurors to _______.
Select one:
a. Assess whether the judge is impartial
b. Bolster physical evidence
c. Interpret the defendant's belief in consent
d. Assess the woman's credibility
e. None of the above

d. Assess the woman's credibility Correct

14

What is Fitness interview test (FIT-R)?

One tool for determining fitness to stand trial. The first step when using the FIT-R is to
determine if the individual suffers from a mental disorder. The 3 criteria found in Section
2 of the Canadian Criminal Code are then assessed (is the individual unable to
understand the nature of the proceedings, understand the consequences of the
proceedings, or communicate with counsel).

15

What is fitness to stand trial?

Fitness to stand trial
The determination of fitness to stand trial involves an assessment of the current mental
condition of the accused, where the goal is to determine whether it interferes with their
ability to perform legal tasks. Typically the legal tasks at issues include: (1) Is the
accused able to assist in his defence?, (2) Does the accused understand his or her role
in the proceedings?, and (3) Does the accused understand the nature of the
proceedings?

16

What is the MacCAT-CA?

One tool used to assess fitness to stand trial (and fitness to plead guilty). This tool
examines 3 general issues: (1) the individual's understanding of the legal system, (2)
the individual's reasoning ability, and (3) the individual's understanding of their own
legal situation.

17

What is the ALI standard?

A standard for determining criminal responsibility which states that for an offender to be
found not responsible they must, at the time of the crime, lack the capacity to appreciate
the criminality of the act or conform their conduct to the requirements of the law.

18

What is the irresistible impulse test?

A standard for determining criminal responsibility, which states that for an offender to be
found not responsible they must, at the time of the crime, be unable to control their
behaviour.

19

What is the McNaghten standard?

A standard for determining criminal responsibility which states that for an offender to be
found not responsible they must, at the time of the crime, suffer from a defect of reason
and must not know the nature of the act or must not understand that it was wrong.

20

What is the mental state at the time of the offence screening evaluation (MSE)?

One tool for assessing criminal responsibility. It examines three areas: (1) general
psychological history, (2) mental state at the time of the offence, and (3) current mental
status.

21

What is the NCRMD standard?

A standard for determining criminal responsibility which states that for an offender to be
found not responsible they must, at the time of the crime, be suffering from a disorder
that rendered them incapable of appreciating the nature of the act or incapable of
knowing that the act was wrong.