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Flashcards in Chapter 7 Deck (30):

State Piaget's general description of cognition.

Young children do not think the same as older children. Use of clinical method to understand their line of reasoning.


What is Piaget's process of assimiliation?

The process by which we interpret new experiences in terms of existing schemes or cognitive structures. Example - looking at a furry animal and calling it a dog because already learned that dog is furry.


What is Piaget's process of accommodation?

The process of modifying existing schemes to better fit new experiences. Example - furry animal is not a dog so you will need a new name for it.


What is Piaget's process of equilibration?

The process of achieving mental stability where internal thoughts are consistent with the evidence we receive from the external environment. Example - the new furry animal is different than a dog.


What is the importance of equilibration in the process?

Equilibration helps with resolving conflict.


Name with age ranges Piaget's 4 stages of cognitive development.

Sensormotor - birth to 2 years
Preoperational - 2-7 years
Concrete operations - 7-11 years
Formal operations - 11 years +


What are the strengths of Piaget's theory/

1. Stimulates research
2. Showed that infant's and children are active in their own development
3. Right in his basic description of cognitive development and its sequence.


Indicate how culture and social interaction affect thought in Vygotsky's theory.

According to Vygotsky, culture and social experience affect how we think, not just what we think. The culture in which a child lives and the kinds of problem solving strategies that adults use pass onto and influence the child.


Explain how tools, especially language, influence thought.

Tools such as spoken language, writing, using numbers and applying problem solving and memory strategies influence thought. Language shapes thought and thought changes once we begin to think in words.


Explain the importance of object permanence and describe the path from lack of object permanence to full understanding of object permanence.

Important for infants to know that reality exists apart from their experience of it.


What important cognitive achievement emerges toward the end of the sensorimotor period?

The concept of object permanence is fully mastered by 18-24 months.


Name 3 ways that preoperational thought is limited relative to concrete operational thought.

1. Fail to demonstrate conservation due to limitations in transformational thought
2. Engage in static thought that is fixed on end states
3. Centration rather than decentration - the tendency to focus on a single aspect of the problem


What is the defining feature of concrete operational thought?

The child has mastered decentration, reversibility and transformational thought.


Define adolescent egocentrism and describe Elkind's two types of adolescent egocentrism.

Egocentrism in adolescents is where there is difficulty differentiating one's own thoughts and feelings from those of other people. Two types:
1. Imaginary audience - confusing your own thoughts with those of a hypothetical audience for your behavior. Feels everyone is focused on her.
2. Personal fable - a tendency to think you and your thoughts and feelings are unique.


Describe the hypothetical-deductive approach to problem solving.

Reasoning from general ideas or rules to specific meaning (if then)


In what situations are adults more likely to use concrete operational thought than formal operational thought?

In situations where the individual is less familiar with the context.


Explain why poorer performance on tests of formal operational thinking does not mean that older adults have regressed to immature modes of thought.

1. Cohort effect
2. No motivation to solve unfamiliar problems
3. Rely on modes of cognition that have worked previously.
4. Context of problem


Zone of proximidal development

Gap between which a learner can accomplish independently and what can be accomplished with guidance of a more skilled person


Guided participation

How some children learn by participation in activities with the aid and support of parents, teachers, peers.



Pairing a more skilled learner with less skilled learner to give structured help.



Tendency to view the world from your own perspective


Post formal thought

Ways of thinking that are more complex than those of formal operational stage



Centering attention on one aspect of a problem



Ability to focus on 2 or more dimensions of a problem


Relativistic thinking

Knowledge depends on context


Dialectal thinking

Detecting inconsistencies of ideas and trying to reconcile them.


Class inclusion

Understanding that the parts are included in the whole



Arrange items mentally along a quantifiable dimension



Necessary relations among elements in a series


Static thought

Focus on end states rather than changes.