Chapter 7&8: The Skeletal System - Bone Tissue Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7&8: The Skeletal System - Bone Tissue Deck (63)
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1

Bone tissue and the skeletal system perform which functoins?

1. Support

2. Protection

3. Assistance in movement

4. blood cell production

5. mineral homeostasis

6. triglyceride storage 

2

What does red bone marrow consist of anf where is it located?

made of: developing blood cells, adipocytes, fibroblasts, and macrophages.

Found in: developing bones of fetus and in some adult bones ( skull, vertebrae, stermun, ribs, pelvis, and ends of arm and thigh bones.

3

What does yellow bone marrow consist of and when can you find it?

Made mostly of adipocytes which store triglyceride and some blood cells.

most red bone marrow turns into yellow bone marrow with age.

4

What are the 4 different types of bones?

1. short

2. long

3. flat

4. irregular

5

What makes a bone a long bone?

Which bones are long bones?

Greater length than width and consist of a shaft and a variable number of ends.

Long bones include:

femur (thigh), tibia, and fibula

humerus (arm), ulna, and radius

phalanges (fingers and toes)

6

What makes a bone a short bone?

Which bones are short bones?

Somewhat cube-shaped and nearly equal in length and width.

Wrist and ankle bones

7

What makes a bone an irregular bone and which bones are they?

Have complex shapes and cannot be group into other groups.

include vertebrae and some facial bones.

8

A typical long bones consists of what 7 parts?

1. diaphysis 

2. epiphyses

3. metaphyses

4. articular cartilage

5. periosteum

6. medullary cavity

7. endosteum

9

What 3 components make up the extracellular matrix of a bone? 

25% water 

25% collagen foberes

50% crystallized mineral salts

10

______ is initiated by osteoblasts.

Calcification

11

What are osteogenic cells?

Unspecialized stem cells derived from mesenchyme.

12

As osteoblasts surround themselves wit hextracellular matrix, they become traped in their secretions and become _____.

Osteocytes

13

What bone cells undergo cell devision?

Osteogenic cells

14

?What does compact bone tissue consist of?

Osteons with little spaces between them.

15

What is spongy bone tissue composed of?

Trabeculae surrounding many red bone marrow-filled spaces.

16

Where can you find spongy bone tissue?

Forms most of the short, flat and irregular bones, and epiphyses of long bones.

17

What is the function of spongy bone tissue? 

stores red bone marrow and provides some support.

18

Bone forms by a process called ______.

Ossification

19

Bone formation in an embryo of fetus occurs by what type of ossification?

Intramembranous and endochondrail ossification,

which involves the replacement of pre-existing CT with bone.

20

What type of ossification occurs within mesenchyme arranged in sheetlike layers that resemble membranes?

Intramembranous Ossification

21

What type of ossification occurs within a cartilage model derived from mesenchyme?

Endochondral Ossification

22

The primary ossification center of a long bone is in the ______.

diaphysis

23

What is a fracture?

Any break in a bone

24

What is a partial fracture?

An incomplete break across the bone, 

such as a crack.

25

What is a complete fracture?

A complete break across the bone,

bone is broken into 2 or more pieces.

26

What is a closed fracture?

the fractured bone does not break through skin.

*also called SIMPLE

27

What is invloved in fracture repair?

 

1. Phagocytes begin to remove any dead bone tissue

2. Chondroblasts form firbocartilage at fracture site taht bridged the broken ends of bone.

3. Fibrocartilage is converted to spongy bone tissue by osteoblasts.

4. Bone remodeling occurs.

28

What is a open fracture?

The broken ends of bone protrude through skin. 

*also called COMPOUND

29

Bone store and release calcuum and phosphate, controlled maily by ________.

Parathyroid hormone (PTH)

30

Which 2 minerals do bone tissues store the most of?

Calcium and Phosphorus

31

What makes a bone a flat bone and which bones are they?

Generally thin, afford considerable protection, and provide extensive serface for muscle attachment.

Crainal bones, sternum, ribs, and scapulae.

32

What are the 4 major types of cells present in bone tissue?

1. Osteocytes

2. Osteogenic cells

3. Osteoblasts

4. Osteoclasts

33

What are osteoblasts and what is their function?

Bone-building cells

they synthesize and secrete collagen fibers and other organic components needed to build the extracellular matrix of bone tissue. 

34

What do osteoclasts release?

Release powerful lysosomal enzymes and acids that digest the protein and mineral components of the bones extracellular matrix.

35

Where are osteogenic cells found?

Found along the inner portion of periosteum,

in the endosteum, and 

in canals within bone that contain blood vessels.

 

36

What is the function of compact bone tissue?

Protection, suppost, and resists stress.

37

What is bone remodeling?

Old bone is constantly destroyed by osteoclasts,

while new bone is constructed by oseoblasts.

38

How does mechanical stress increase bone strength?

increases the deposition of mineral salts and 

production of collagen fibers

 

39

What happens when mechanical stress is removed?

Weakens bones through demineralization and collagen fiber reduction.

40

Which cells have a ruffled boarder and secrete hydrochloric acid?

Osteoclasts

41

The spurt of growth in puberty results from cell proliferation and hypertrophy in what part of the bone?

epiphyseal plate

42

Osteoclasts are most closely related, by common decent, to what cell?

Blood cells

43

The walls between cartilage lacunae break down in what zone?

Bone deposition

 

44

A child jumps to the ground from the top of the playground. What causes his leg bones not to shatter?

Contains collagen fibers

45

Where does one long bone meet another?

Epiphysis

46

What is calcitroil made of?

7-dehydrocholesterol

47

What is a sign of osteoporosis?

a wrist fracture

48

Calcium phosphate crystallizes in bone as a mineral called ______.

Hydroxyapatite 

49

Osteocytes conact each other through channels called ______ in the bone matrix.

Caniculi

50

A calcium deficiency called ___________ can cause death by suffocation.

Hypocalcemia

51

The most active form of vitamin D, produced mainly by the kidneys, is _______. 

Calcitriol 

52

The most common bone disease is _______.

Osteoporosis 

53

A pregnant, poorly nourished woman may suffer a softening of the bones called _______.

Osteomalacia 

54

What does the tubercle of a rib articulate with?

the transverse process of a vertabra.

55

The disc-shaped head of the radius articulates with the _______ of the humerus.

Capitulum

56

What body supports your body weight when you are sitting down?

the ischium

57

Gaps between the cranial bones of a infant are called ______.

fontanels

58

The external auditory canal is a passage in the ______ bone.

temporal

59

Bones of the skull are joined along what lines?

sutures

 

60

The _____ bone has great ans lesser winngs and protects the pituitary gland.

Sphenoid

61

A herniated disc occurs when a ring called the ______ cracks.

Anulus

62

The transverse ligament of the atlas holds the _____ of the axis in place.

dens

63