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Flashcards in Chapter 7 Deck (57)
1

arthralgia

joint pain

2

atrophy

wasting away; literally without development

3

contracture

abnormal bending of a joint into a fixed position

4

fascia (muscle fibers)

thin sheets of fibrous connective tissue that penetrate and cover the entire muscle

5

cartilaginous joint

bones connected by cartilage, limited movement, (pubic bones of pelvis)

6

synovial joint

free movement, joint held together by ligaments, bones have a space between them called joint cavity with synovial membrane secretes synovial fluid (knee and hip)

7

supination

the act of turning the palm up or forward

8

pronation

turning the palm down or backward

9

crepitation

clicking or crackling sounds herd upon joint movement

10

sciatica

inflammation of siatic nerve

11

subluxation

an incomplete dislocation

12

ganglion

a cystic tumor developing on a tendon, sometimes occurring on the back of the wrist

13

gout

a form of arthritis characterized by inflammation of the first metatarsal joint of the great toe

14

muscular dystrophy

group of genetically transmitted disorders characterized by progressive symmetrical wasting of skeletal muscle

15

osteoarthritis (OA)

most common form of arthritis, degenerative joint disease

16

rheumatoid arthritis (RA)

chronic systemic inflammatory disease that affects multiple joints of the body

17

arthrocentesis

surgical puncture of a joint with a needle for the purpose of withdrawing fluid for analysis

18

arthrography

process of x-raying the inside of a joint after a injection of a contrast medium

19

arthroplasty

surgical reconstruction (repair) of a joint

20

arthroscopy

the visualization of the interior of a joint

21

polymyositis

chronic progressive disease affecting the skeletal (striated) muscles

22

rotator cuff tear

tear in the muscles that form a "cuff" over the upper end of the arm (head of the humerus)

23

bursa

lubricates the area around the joint where friction is most likely to occur

24

adhesive capsulitis

limited shoulder movement, and pain, (frozen shoulder)

25

arthritis

inflammation of joints

26

ankylosing spondylitis

affects the vertebral column and causes deformities of the spine

27

bunion (hallux valgus)

abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the great toe

28

dislocation

the displacement of a bone from its normal location within a joint, causes loss of joint function

29

herniated disk

the rupture of the disk through the disk wall and into the spinal canal

30

rheumatoid factor (RF)

blood test that measures the presence of unusual antibodies

31

erythrocyte sed rate

(ESR) blood test that measures the rate at which erythrocytes settle to the bottom of a test tube

32

sprain

injury involving the ligaments that surround and support a joint. caused by a wrenching or twisting motion

33

function of muscles

1) movement of the body
2) support and maintain body posture
3) produce heat when contracting

34

types of muscles

skeletal, smooth, cardiac

35

skeletal

attaches to the bones of skeleton, voluntary movement, conscious control

36

smooth

visceral muscle, involuntary, unconscious control

37

cardiac

forms the wall of the heart. involuntary

38

tendon

fibrous band of muscle tissue attaches muscles to bone

39

origin

point of attachment of the muscle to the bone that is less movable

40

insertion

point of attachment to the bone that it moves

41

ligament

connective tissue band attaches bone to bone

42

electromyography

process of recording strength of contraction of a muscle

43

muscle biopsy

extraction of a specimen of muscle tissue, through biopsy needle or incisional biopsy, to examine under a microscope

44

joint (articulation)

point at which two individual bones connect

45

suture

immovable joint, purpose is to bind bones together

46

fibrous joint

bones fit closely together and are held together by fibrous connective tissue allows no movement (skull bones)

47

hinge

allows a back and forth type motion (elbow)

48

ball-and-socket

allows movement in many directions around a central point (shoulder joint and hip joint)

49

flexion

bending motion

50

extension

straightening motion

51

dorsiflexion

foot is bent backward, or upward at the ankle

52

plantar flexion

foot is bent downward at the ankle, toes pointing downward (ballet dancing)

53

Rotation

turning of a bone on its own axis (neck)

54

circumduction

movement of an extremity around in a circular motion

55

Lyme disease

acute, recurrent inflammatory infection, transmitted through the bite of an infected deer tick

56

strain

injury involving muscle body or tendon attachment, overstretching, over extension, misuse

57

systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)

chronic inflammatory connective tissue disease, affects skin, joints, nervous system, kidneys, lungs, (butterfly rash)