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​2.​An example of someone who has a relatively high risk for vitamin deficiencies is a(n)
a.
teenage competitive athlete.
b.
elderly man living independently.
c.
college-age girl living with roommates.
d.
newborn breastfed infant.

B

1

​1.​A secondary deficiency of a vitamin occurs when
a.
dietary intake of two or more vitamins is inadequate.
b.
absorption is inadequate or excessive amounts are excreted.
c.
dietary intake is less than the physiologic need of the individual.
d.
the vitamin deficiency is accompanied by protein-energy malnutrition.

B

2

​3.​Deficiencies are likely to develop most rapidly with low intakes of vitamin
a.A.
b.C.
c.D.
d.E.

B

3

​4.​The best way to ensure intake of a variety of phytochemicals is to
a.
take a daily multivitamin supplement that includes phytochemicals.
b.
increase intake of soy-based foods, such as soy milk, tofu, and soy flour.
c.
choose whole grains and include at least five servings of fruits and vegetables daily.
d.
include at least three servings of dairy products daily and use a variety of herbs and spices.

C

4

​5.​The amount of thiamine that the body needs is related to
a.
dietary intake of protein.
b.
exposure of the skin to sunlight.
c.
the amount of energy expended.
d.
physiologic and emotional stress.

C

5

​6.​Deficiency of thiamine is characterized by
a.
muscle weakness, loss of coordination, and tachycardia.
b.
dermatitis, altered nerve function, and convulsions.
c.
skin rash, hair loss, loss of appetite, and depression.
d.
gingivitis, poor wound healing, and increased risk of infection.

A

6

​7.​The riboflavin in milk is protected by
a.
pasteurization.
b.
homogenization.
c.
storing milk under refrigeration.
d.
using nontransparent containers.

D

7

​8.​The most significant source of riboflavin in the United States is
a.
milk.
b.
eggs.
c.
meats.
d.
whole grains.

A

8

​9.​Historically, deficiency of niacin was sometimes misdiagnosed as
a.
alcoholism.
b.
mental illness.
c.
viral infection.
d.
iron deficiency anemia.

B

9

​10.​Niacin can be manufactured by the body from the amino acid
a.
alanine.
b.
arginine.
c.
tryptophan.
d.
phenylalanine.

C

10

​11.​Pyridoxine functions in the body as a coenzyme in metabolism of
a.
fat.
b.
protein.
c.
carbohydrate.
d.
energy.

B

11

​12.​A disorder in infants that is associated with inadequate intake of folate during pregnancy is
a.
spina bifida.
b.
cystic fibrosis.
c.
Down syndrome.
d.
macrocytic anemia.

A

12

​13.​Adequate intake of folic acid is especially important for
a.
competitive athletes.
b.
infants and young children.
c.
women of childbearing age.
d.
pregnant and lactating women.

C

13

​14.​An example of a high-folate meal is
a.
fish, French fries, and coleslaw.
b.
spinach salad with orange segments.
c.
oatmeal with brown sugar and raisins.
d.
pork chops with applesauce.

B

14

​15.​The type of anemia associated with folate deficiency is _____ anemia.
a.
microcytic
b.
pernicious
c.
megaloblastic
d.
iron deficiency

C

15

​16.​The substance produced by the stomach that is necessary for absorption of cobalamin is
a.
intrinsic factor.
b.
pernicious factor.
c.
hydrochloric acid.
d.
pyridoxal phosphate.

A

16

​17.​Deficiency of vitamin B12 may cause damage to the
a.
skin.
b.
eyes.
c.
heart.
d.
nerves.

D

17

​18.​An example of a meal high in biotin is a
a.
cheese and tomato sandwich.
b.
roast beef and mustard sandwich.
c.
peanut butter and jelly sandwich.
d.
vegetarian sandwich with avocado and alfalfa sprouts.

C

18

​19.​Pantothenic acid is required for
a.
absorption of amino acids.
b.
conduction of nerve impulses.
c.
regulation of body temperature.
d.
metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and protein.
D

D

19

​20.​Some choline can be synthesized by the body from
a.
glycerol.
b.
cholesterol.
c.
tryptophan.
d.
methionine.

D

20

​21.​Vitamin C deficiency causes scurvy, which is characterized by
a.
weakening of connective tissues.
b.
diarrhea, dermatitis, and dementia.
c.
degeneration of nerves and muscles.
d.
iron deficiency anemia and weight loss.

A

21

​22.​Lifestyle behaviors that increase vitamin C requirements include
a.
shift work.
b.
vegan diet.
c.
high fat intake.
d.
smoking cigarettes.

D

22

​23.​Vegetables are likely to be highest in vitamin C if they are
a.
boiled.
b.
canned.
c.
stir-fried.
d.
oven roasted.

C

23

​24.​Vitamin A may be obtained by the body from precursors called
a.
calciferols.
b.
carotenoids.
c.
rhodopsins.
d.
tocopherols.

B

24

​25.​An eye disorder associated with vitamin A deficiency is
a.
myopia.
b.
retinopathy.
c.
double vision.
d.
xerophthalmia.

D

25

​26.​Vitamins that function as antioxidants in the body include
a.
vitamins C and E.
b.
vitamins D and K.
c.
pyridoxine and biotin.
d.
folate and vitamin B12.

A

26

​27.​The Adequate Intake (AI) for vitamin D increases in older adults because
a.
their ability to absorb dietary vitamin D is diminished.
b.
conversion of vitamin D to its active forms is less efficient.
c.
their skin is less efficient in synthesizing vitamin D during sun exposure.
d.
they require more vitamin D than younger adults to maintain bone health.

C

27

​28.​Symptoms of vitamin D toxicity include
a.
lethargy and loss of coordination.
b.
rickets, osteomalacia, and osteoporosis.
c.
blistered skin, joint pain, and liver damage.
d.
high levels of calcium in the blood and urine.

D

28

​29.​Vitamin E requirements are related to intake of
a.
protein.
b.
vitamin C.
c.
polyunsaturated fats.
d.
monounsaturated fats.

C

29

​30.​An example of a meal high in vitamin K is
a.
grilled shrimp with rice and green beans.
b.
eggs, bacon, and hash browns.
c.
stir fried beef with broccoli.
d.
bacon, lettuce and tomato sandwich.

C

30

​31.​Long-term antibiotic use may be associated with vitamin K deficiency because antibiotics
a.
prevent absorption of vitamin K.
b.
kill gut bacteria that synthesize vitamin K.
c.
break down dietary vitamin K in the intestines.
d.
impair blood clotting and increase vitamin K requirements.

B

31

​32.​The first step to ensuring adequate intake of vitamins is to
a.
use a daily multivitamin supplement.
b.
increase fortification of key foods in the food supply.
c.
target specific supplements for specific subgroups of the population.
d.
ensure that the diet includes a variety of foods from all of the food groups.

D

32

​33.​Many Americans use vitamin supplements on a regular basis because
a.
supplements taste better than food.
b.
this practice is necessary for good health.
c.
it is cheaper than consuming an adequate diet.
d.
it is easier than making dietary and behavioral modifications.

D