Chapter 7 & 8 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7 & 8 Deck (360):
1

Proct/o

Anus and rectum

2

Tors

Twisted

3

Mast

Breast

4

Pain in the arm

Brachialgia

5

-asthenia

Weakness

6

-megaly

Enlargement, large

7

-or

A doer

8

Lingu

Tongue

9

Bucc

Cheek

10

Pain in a tendon

Tenodynia

11

Cleid/o

Clavicle

12

Building up of the body tissues in the constructive phase of metabolism

Anabolism

13

-phagia

To eat, to swallow

14

Inflammation of a synovial membrane

Synovitis

15

-osis

Condition

16

-scopy

Visual examination, to view, examine

17

Condition in which the tongue is covered by hairlike papillae entangled w/ threads produced by aspergillosis niger or candida albicans fungi

Black hairy tongue

18

Lip/o

Fat

19

-ism

Condition

20

Chewing; the physical breaking up of food and mixing w/ saliva in the mouth

Mastication

21

Anabol

A building up

22

Pept

To digest

23

Pertaining to the pharynx

Pharyngeal

24

General term used to describe conditions characterized by inflammation, soreness, and stiffness of muscles and pain in joints

Rheumatism

25

Act or process of swallowing

Deglutition

26

Splen/o

Spleen

27

Halit

Breath

28

Ten/o

Tendon

29

Tort/i

Twisted

30

Chol/e

Gall, bile

31

Muscular motion or activity

Myokinesis

32

Surgical excision of the gallbladder

Cholecystectomy

33

Choledoch/o

Common bile duct

34

Pertaining to the tongue

Lingual

35

-spasm

Tension, spasm

36

Intestine

Bowel

37

Abnormal protrusion of an organ or a part of an organ through the wall of the body cavity that normally contains it.

Hernia

38

-malacia

Softening

39

Pertaining to the gatekeeper, the opening between the stomach and the duodenum,

Pyloric

40

Uncomfortable feeling of the inclination to vomit

Nausea

41

Mass of dilated, tortuous veins in the anorectum; can be internal or external

Hemorrhoid

42

Pertaining to the gastric digestion

Peptic

43

Thermotherapy; treatment using scientific application of heat can be used 48-72 hours after the injury

Heat

44

Labi

Lip

45

Surgical or traumatic removal of a limb, part, or other appendage

Amputation

46

Dent

Tooth

47

Shaped like a worm

Vermiform

48

Nid

Nest

49

An instrument used in a medical procedure to view the interior of the sigmoid colon

Sigmoidoscope

50

Disorder that interferes w/ the normal functions of the large intestine

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)

51

Surgical binding of a tendon

Tenodesis

52

Tract

To draw

53

Gravis

Grave

54

Duoden

Duodenum

55

Frequent passage of unformed water stools

Diarrhea

56

-logy

Study of

57

Tri-

Three

58

To feed liquid or semiliquid food via a tube

Gavage

59

Lack of muscular coordination; an inability to coordinate voluntary muscular movements that is symptomatic of some nervous disorders

Ataxia

60

-stasis

Contraction

61

Absorpt

To take in

62

Rect/o

Rectum

63

Inflammation of a fascia

Fasciitis

64

Condition that occurs when the muscle between the esophagus and the stomach, the lower esophageal sphincter, is weak or relaxes inappropriately, allowing the stomachs contents to back up into the esophagus

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

65

Pertaining to certain muscles that work together

Synergetic

66

Point of attachment of a muscle to the part that it moves

Insertion

67

A-

Lack of

68

Append

Appendix

69

Infrequent passage of unduly hard and dry feces

Constipation

70

Type, number, and arrangement of teeth in the dental arch

Dentition

71

Spasmodic contraction of a muscle

Myospasm

72

Vomiting of blood

Hematemesis

73

Pil/o

Hair

74

-trophy

Nourishment, development

75

Pertaining to tone, especially muscular tension

Tonic

76

Dermat/o

Skin

77

An intestinal disease characterized by inflammation of the mucous membrane

Dysentery

78

Lemma

A rind

79

Metr

To measure

80

An instrument used in a medical procedure to view the interior of the rectal cavity; a short, straight, rigid, hollow metal tube, usually with a small light bulb

Proctoscope

81

Process of drawing up and thickening of a muscle fiber

Contraction

82

Surgical excision of the appendix

Appendectomy

83

-kinesia

Motion

84

Prand/i

Meal

85

Absorpt

To take in

86

Tumor containing muscle tissue

Myoma

87

Inflammation of the pancreas

Pancreatitis

88

Group of muscles and their tendons that act to stabilize the shoulder

Rotator cuff

89

Condition of impaired muscle tone

Dystonia

90

-ity

Condition

91

Literally a casting down; in metabolism a breaking of complex substances into more basic elements

Catabolism

92

Chronic autoimmune neuromuscular disease characterized by varying degrees of weakness of the skeletal (voluntary) muscles of the body. Means grave muscle weakness.

Myasthenia gravis (MG)

93

Malignant tumor derived from muscle tissue

Myosarcoma

94

Substance that acts to loosen the bowel

Laxative

95

Dactyl/o

Finger or toe

96

Belching

Eructation

97

Muscle arising from the sternum and clavicle w/ it's insertion in the mastoid process

Sternocleidomastoid

98

Surgical process of transferring the liver from a donor to a patient

Liver transplant

99

Fasc

A band

100

Is/o

Equal

101

An inadequate absorption of nutrients from the intestinal tract

Malabsorption

102

Brady-

Slow

103

Pertaining to the small intestine

Enteric

104

Stiffness of skeletal muscles seen in death; develops between the 4th and 24th hour after death, then ceases

Rigor mortis

105

Inflammation and degeneration of the gums and surrounding bone, which frequently causes loss of the teeth

Periodontal disease

106

Pertaining to after a meal

Postprandial (PP)

107

Log

Study of

108

Stiff neck caused by spasmodic contraction of the muscles of the neck

Torticollis

109

Formation of glycogen from glucose

Glycogenesis

110

To eject stomach contents through the mouth

Vomit

111

Inflammation of the appendix

Appendicitis

112

Means a lack of nourishment, wasting away of muscular tissue that may be caused by lack of use or lack of nerve stimulation of the muscle

Atrophy

113

-ist

Agent (also means specialist)

114

Hernia of part of the rectum into the vagina

Rectocele

115

Intradermal-

Within

116

-oma

Tumor

117

Thin layer of connective tissue covering, supporting, or connecting the muscles or inner organs of the body

Fascia

118

Chronic, immunological disease w/ systemic pathology; inflammation of the muscles and the skin; a connective tissue disease characterized by edema, dermatitis and inflammation of the muscles

Dermatomyositis

119

Means the study of the stomach and the intestines

Gastroenterology

120

Process of being twisted

Torison

121

Passage of stools that contain red blood

Hematochezia

122

Volunt

Will

123

Pertaining to w/in a muscle, such as an IM injection

Intramuscular (IM)

124

Condition in which a muscle shortens and renders the muscle resistant to the normal stretching process.

Contracture

125

Pain in the muscle

Myalgia

126

Sial

Saliva

127

Muscle that on contraction draws away from the middle

Abductor

128

Surgical repair of a hernia

Herniorrhaphy

129

Eructat

A breaking out

130

Wavelike contraction that occurs involuntarily in hollow tubes of the body, especially the alimentary canal

Peristalsis

131

Pertaining to the region above the stomach

Epigastric

132

Muscle having 3 heads w/ a single insertion

Triceps

133

Cirrh

Orange-yellow

134

-stomy

New opening

135

Hepat

Liver

136

-therapy

Treatment

137

Milky fluid of intestinal digestion composed of lymph and emulsified fats

Chyle

138

Sert

To gain

139

-genesis

Formation, produce

140

Muscle w/ 2 heads or points of origin

Biceps

141

Thin, lighted, flexible instrument that is used to view the interior of the colon during a colonoscopy

Colonoscope

142

Lapar/o

Abdomen

143

Paralysis affecting many muscles

Polyplegia

144

Amputat

To cut through

145

Pertaining to alternate contraction and relaxation of muscles

Clonic

146

Tumor of striated muscle tissue

Rhabdomyoma

147

Tumor that contains muscle and fiber

Myofibroma

148

Con-

With, together

149

Gloss

Tongue

150

A strong, flat sheet of fibrous connective tissue that serves as a tendon to attach muscles to bone or as fascia to bind muscles together or to other tissues at their origin or insertion

Aponeurosis

151

Pertaining to below the tongue

Sublingual

152

Muscle disease

Myopathy

153

Abnormal condition of the lip as seen in riboflavin and other B-complex deficiencies

Cheilosis

154

Pain in a tooth

Dentalgia

155

Under the control of ones will

Voluntary

156

Paralyt

To disable; paralysis

157

-tome

Instrument to cut

158

Laxat

To loosen

159

Surgical process of transferring the pancreas from a donor to a patient

Pancreas transplant

160

Pertaining to a lack of normal tone or tension; the lack of normal muscle tone

Atonic

161

Therm

Hot, heat

162

Inflammation of the gallbladder

Cholecystitis

163

Alimentat

Nourishment

164

-paresis

Weakness

165

Pertaining to bile

Biliary

166

Disease in which an ulcer forms in the mucosal wall of the stomach, the pylorus, the duodenum, or the esophagus

Peptic ulcer disease (PUD)

167

-ase

Enzyme

168

To wash out a cavity. Is used to remove or dilute gastric contents in cases of acute poisoning or ingestion of a caustic substance

Lavage

169

Instrument used to record muscular contractions

Myograph

170

Protein found in muscle cells. When the gene that's responsible for this protein is defective and this is not produced, muscle wasting occurs.

Dystrophin

171

Col

Colon

172

Neur/o

Nerve

173

Embryonic cell that develops into a cell of muscle fiber

Myoblast

174

Means pertaining to having equal measure; increasing tension of muscle while maintaining equal length

Isometric

175

Difficulty in swallowing

Dysphagia

176

Inflammation of the diverticula (pouches in the walls of an organ) in the colon.

Diverticulitis

177

Verm/i

Worm

178

Muscul

Muscle

179

Gingiv

Gums

180

Pertaining to the stomach

Gastric

181

Catabol

A casting down

182

Performed activity of the muscles for improvement of health or correction of deformity

Exercise

183

Diverticul

Diverticula

184

Excessive vomiting

Hyperemesis

185

Chronic autoimmune disease that can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract but mostly commonly occurs in the ileum

Crohn's disease

186

Sub-

Below

187

-form

Shape

188

-ic

Pertaining to

189

Duct

To lead

190

Colon

Colon

191

Pylor

Pylorus, gatekeeper

192

Refers to a group of genetic diseases characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of the skeletal or voluntary muscles that control movement.

Muscular dystrophy

193

Protein substance capable of causing rapid chemical changes in other substances w/out being changed itself

Enzyme

194

Muscle that raises or elevates a part

Levator

195

Odont

Tooth

196

Appendic

Appendix

197

Bi-

Two

198

Herni/o

Hernia

199

-ion

Process

200

Plasma membrane surrounding each striated muscle fiber

Sarcolemma

201

-Ive

Nature or quality of

202

Disorder w/ chronic, widespread musculoskeletal pain and fatigue.

Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS)

203

-ure

Process

204

Gastr/o

Stomach

205

Fibr/o

Fiber

206

Process of moving a body part around a central axis

Rotation

207

-ceps

Head

208

Enter

Intestine

209

Orange-colored bile pigment produced by the separation of hemoglobin into parts that are excreted by the liver cells

Bilirubin

210

Pertaining to having the same tone or tension

Isotonic

211

Esophage

Esophagus

212

Sigmoid/o

Sigmoid

213

Rotat

To turn

214

Chronic degenerative liver disease characterized by changes in the lobes; parenchymal cells and the lobules are infiltrated w/ fat

Cirrhosis

215

Surgical suture of a muscle wound

Myorrhaphy

216

-rrhea

Flow

217

Enter/o

Intestine

218

Fibrous, encapsulated connective tissue tumor

Fibroma

219

Synov

Synovial membrane

220

Softening of muscle tissue

Myomalacia

221

Inflammation of the ileum

Ileitis

222

Bad breath

Halitosis

223

Syn-

With, together

224

Cyst

Bladder

225

Ab-

Away from

226

Visual examination of the colon via a colonoscope

Colonoscopy

227

Defecat

To remove dregs

228

Break down of fat

Lipolysis

229

Partial or complete surgical excision of the tongue

Glossectomy

230

Clon

Turmoil

231

Kneading that applies pressure and friction to external body tissues

Massage

232

-ion

Process

233

Pertaining to the esophagus

Esophageal

234

Muscle that counteracts the action of another muscle; when on contracts the other relaxes

Antagonist

235

Pertaining to the lip

Labial

236

-ia

Condition

237

Significant accumulation of serous fluid in the peritoneal cavity

Ascites

238

Surgical excision of a part of or the whole stomach

Gastrectomy

239

Bil/i

Gall, bile

240

Agon

Agony, a contest

241

Mes

Middle

242

-phragm

Fence, partition

243

Closed sac in the crease of the sacrococcygeal region caused by a development defect that permits epithelial tissue and hair to be trapped below the skin

Pilonidal cyst

244

-pathy

Disease

245

Surgical excision of parts of the colon

Colectomy

246

Vomiting

Emesis

247

Excessive, forcible stretching of a muscle or the muscultotendinous unit

Strain

248

Process by which nutrient material is transferred form the gastrointestinal tract into the bloodstream or lymph

Absorption

249

Tumor of the liver

Hepatoma

250

-Sis

Condition

251

The creation of a new opening into the colon, performed for the purpose of evacuating the bowel; can be required because of colon cancer, intestinal obstruction, perforation, birth defects, and Crohn's disease

Colostomy

252

Surgical repair of a muscle

Myoplasty

253

Pertaining to the peritoneal fold encircling the small intestines and connecting the intestines tot he posterior abdominal wall

Mesentery

254

-us

Pertaining to

255

One who specialized in dentistry

Dentist

256

Inflammation of the liver

Hepatitis

257

The treatment of choice for soft tissue and muscle injuries. It causes vasoconstriction of blood vessels and is effective in diminishing bleeding and edema

Cryotherapy

258

Pancreat

Pancreas

259

Dys-

Difficult

260

Colon/o

Colon

261

Ton

Tone, tension

262

-ar

Pertaining to

263

Gastr

Stomach

264

-desis

Binding

265

Pertaining to the stomach and esophagus

Gastroesophageal

266

The surgical creation of a new opening through the abdominal wall into the ileum

Ileostomy

267

Scler

Hardening

268

Twisting of the Bowel on itself that causes an obstruction

Volvulus

269

Dia-

Through

270

Pertaining to the colon

Colonic

271

Inflammation of the gums

Gingivitis

272

Ant-

Against

273

Inflammation of muscle tissue, especially skeletal muscles; may be caused by infection, trauma, or parasitic infestation

Myositis

274

Inflammation of the salivary gland

Sialadenitis

275

Ad-

Toward

276

Aden

Gland

277

Enzyme that breaks down starch.

Amylase

278

Physician who specialized in the study of the anus and the rectum

Proctologist

279

My/o

Muscle

280

Treatment using high frequency current to produce heat w/in a part of the body; used to increase blood flow but should not be used in acute stage of recovery from trauma

Diathermy

281

Sarc/o

Flesh

282

-tomy

Incision

283

-y

Pertaining to

284

Muscle that draws a part toward the middle

Adductor

285

Inflammation of the mouth

Stomatitis

286

Glyc/o

Sweet, sugar

287

-scope

Instrument for examining

288

Lacking muscle tone; weal, soft, and flabby

Flaccid

289

-plegia

Stroke, paralysis

290

Surgical incision into a muscle

Myotomy

291

Abnormal condition of hardening of muscle

Myosclerosis

292

Rheumat

Discharge

293

Levat

Lifter

294

Lack of appetite; decreased desire for food

Anorexia

295

Inflammation of muscle & fibrous tissue

Fibromyitis

296

-algia

Pain

297

Body waste discharged from the bowel by way of the anus

Feces

298

Pertaining to the abdomen

Celiac

299

Paralysis of the intestines that causes distention and symptoms of acute bowel obstruction and prostration

Paralytic ileus

300

Weakness or slight paralysis of a muscle

Myoparesis

301

Brach/I

Arm

302

Condition characterized by cramps, convulsions, twitching of the muscles, and sharp flexion of the wrist and ankle joints; generally caused by an abnormality in calcium metabolism

Tetany

303

Amyl

Starch

304

Intravenous infusion of a hypertonic solution to sustain life; used in patients whose gastrointestinal tracts are not functioning properly

Hyperalimentation

305

Condition of increased muscular tone causing stiff and awkward movements

Spasticity

306

Band of fibrous connective tissue serving for the attachment of muscles to bones; a giant cell tumor of a tendon sheath is a benign, small, yellow, turmorlike nodule

Tendon

307

Difficulty in digestion; indigestion

Dyspepsia

308

Volvul

To roll

309

State of tiredness occurring in a muscle as a result of repeated contractions

Fatigue

310

Pertaining to a disease condition involving both nerves and muscles

Neuromyopathic

311

Sarc

Flesh

312

Pertaining to the area around the tooth

Periodontal

313

Open lesion or sore of the epidermis or mucous membrane

Ulcer

314

Study of muscles

Myology

315

Any condition of abnormal development caused by defective nourishment, often noted by the degeneration of muscles

Dystrophy

316

Constipat

To press together

317

Pertaining to the duodenum; the 1st part of the small intestine

Duodenal

318

-plasty

Surgical repair

319

-graph

Instrument for recording

320

Pertaining to below the stomach

Hypogastric

321

Surgical incision of the common bile duct

Choledochotomy

322

Ile

Ileum

323

Hemorrh

Vein liable to bleed

324

-rrhaphy

Suture

325

Stern/o

Sternum

326

-pepsia

To digest, digestion

327

Literally means pertaining to the cheek; relating to the cheek or mouth

Buccal

328

Malignancy of the colon

Colon cancer

329

Eme

To vomit

330

Treatment using scientific application of water; types are hot tub, cold bath, whirlpool, and vapor bath

Hydrotherapy

331

-us

Pertaining to

332

Pharyng/e

Pharynx

333

My

Muscle

334

Celi

Abdomen, belly

335

My

Muscle

336

Rhabd/o

Rod

337

Dia-

Through

338

Fibr

Fibrous tissue

339

Surgical incision into the abdomen

Laparotomy

340

Medical term for cramp of a finger or toe

Dactylospasm

341

Surgical instrument used to cut muscle

Myotome

342

Spastic

Convulsive

343

Evacuation of the bowel

Defecation

344

Disease that causes inflammation and ulcers in the lining of the large intestine. Usually occurs in the rectum and lower part of the colon

Ulcerative colitis

345

Process by which food is changed in the mouth, stomach, and intestines by chemical, mechanical, and physical action so that it can be absorbed by the body

Digestion

346

Partition of muscles and membranes that separates the chest cavity and the abdominal cavity

Diaphragm

347

-ectomy

Surgical excision

348

Slowness of motion or movement

Bradykinesia

349

Bodily posture or attitude; the manner in which a pt. body may be arranged for examination

Position

350

In-

Into

351

Cheil

Lip

352

Lingu

Tongue

353

Pertaining to both nerves and muscles

Neuromuscular

354

Enlargement of the spleen

Splenomegaly

355

Hemat

Blood

356

Erget

Work

357

Stomat

Mouth

358

Means a blowing in Latin; the expelling of gas from the anus

Flatus

359

Inflammation of the small intestine

Enteritis

360

Masticat

To chew