Chapter 7&8: The Skeletal System - Bone Tissue Flashcards Preview

Anatomy and Physiology > Chapter 7&8: The Skeletal System - Bone Tissue > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 7&8: The Skeletal System - Bone Tissue Deck (63)
Loading flashcards...
1

Bone tissue and the skeletal system perform which functoins?

1. Support

2. Protection

3. Assistance in movement

4. blood cell production

5. mineral homeostasis

6. triglyceride storage 

2

What does red bone marrow consist of anf where is it located?

made of: developing blood cells, adipocytes, fibroblasts, and macrophages.

Found in: developing bones of fetus and in some adult bones ( skull, vertebrae, stermun, ribs, pelvis, and ends of arm and thigh bones.

3

What does yellow bone marrow consist of and when can you find it?

Made mostly of adipocytes which store triglyceride and some blood cells.

most red bone marrow turns into yellow bone marrow with age.

4

What are the 4 different types of bones?

1. short

2. long

3. flat

4. irregular

5

What makes a bone a long bone?

Which bones are long bones?

Greater length than width and consist of a shaft and a variable number of ends.

Long bones include:

femur (thigh), tibia, and fibula

humerus (arm), ulna, and radius

phalanges (fingers and toes)

6

What makes a bone a short bone?

Which bones are short bones?

Somewhat cube-shaped and nearly equal in length and width.

Wrist and ankle bones

7

What makes a bone an irregular bone and which bones are they?

Have complex shapes and cannot be group into other groups.

include vertebrae and some facial bones.

8

A typical long bones consists of what 7 parts?

1. diaphysis 

2. epiphyses

3. metaphyses

4. articular cartilage

5. periosteum

6. medullary cavity

7. endosteum

9

What 3 components make up the extracellular matrix of a bone? 

25% water 

25% collagen foberes

50% crystallized mineral salts

10

______ is initiated by osteoblasts.

Calcification

11

What are osteogenic cells?

Unspecialized stem cells derived from mesenchyme.

12

As osteoblasts surround themselves wit hextracellular matrix, they become traped in their secretions and become _____.

Osteocytes

13

What bone cells undergo cell devision?

Osteogenic cells

14

?What does compact bone tissue consist of?

Osteons with little spaces between them.

15

What is spongy bone tissue composed of?

Trabeculae surrounding many red bone marrow-filled spaces.

16

Where can you find spongy bone tissue?

Forms most of the short, flat and irregular bones, and epiphyses of long bones.

17

What is the function of spongy bone tissue? 

stores red bone marrow and provides some support.

18

Bone forms by a process called ______.

Ossification

19

Bone formation in an embryo of fetus occurs by what type of ossification?

Intramembranous and endochondrail ossification,

which involves the replacement of pre-existing CT with bone.

20

What type of ossification occurs within mesenchyme arranged in sheetlike layers that resemble membranes?

Intramembranous Ossification

21

What type of ossification occurs within a cartilage model derived from mesenchyme?

Endochondral Ossification

22

The primary ossification center of a long bone is in the ______.

diaphysis

23

What is a fracture?

Any break in a bone

24

What is a partial fracture?

An incomplete break across the bone, 

such as a crack.

25

What is a complete fracture?

A complete break across the bone,

bone is broken into 2 or more pieces.

26

What is a closed fracture?

the fractured bone does not break through skin.

*also called SIMPLE

27

What is invloved in fracture repair?

 

1. Phagocytes begin to remove any dead bone tissue

2. Chondroblasts form firbocartilage at fracture site taht bridged the broken ends of bone.

3. Fibrocartilage is converted to spongy bone tissue by osteoblasts.

4. Bone remodeling occurs.

28

What is a open fracture?

The broken ends of bone protrude through skin. 

*also called COMPOUND

29

Bone store and release calcuum and phosphate, controlled maily by ________.

Parathyroid hormone (PTH)

30

Which 2 minerals do bone tissues store the most of?

Calcium and Phosphorus