Chapter 7 and 8 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7 and 8 Deck (33):
1

describe the ecological approach to studying perception

focus is on the moving observer and how their movement creates perceptual information that guides further movement and helps people perceive the environment

2

optic flow

the flow of environmental stimuli for a person moving through the environment

3

gradient of flow

optic flow is more rapid near the person and slower farther away

gives info about how fast you are moving

4

focus of expansion

the absence of flow at the destination point the person is moving towards

5

invariant information

examples

constant information acquired as person moves

optic flow and focus of expansion

6

self-produced information

info about the environment that comes from the actions of the observer

7

8

Where are the neurons that respond to optic flow located in the brain

medial superior temporal area

9

visual direction strategy

you keep your body pointed towards the target

10

mirror neurons

neurons that respond when you see someone doing something and when you do that action yourself

11

attentional capture

motion's ability to grab your attention

12

Two types of motion

real motion

illusory motion

13

Types of illusory motion

apparent motion (electronic signs)

induced motion

motion aftereffects

14

induced motion

when the real movement of a large object makes a smaller object look like it's moving

15

motion aftereffects

when viewing a moving stimulus for a period of time causes a stationary object to look like its moving

16

Compare neuronal responses between real and apparent motion

happen in similar areas

17

optic array

the structured pattern of light created by textures, surfaces, and contours of the environment

18

local disturbance in the optic array

something that indicates movement

object moves through the environment and covers up parts of the optic array

19

global optic flow

tells us something is stationary

when we move our eyes or body and everything we look at moves at once

20

reichardt detector

a neural circuit that results in neurons that fire to movement in one direction

21

how do the reichardt circuits work

Excitation and inhibition are arranged in a certain way

Movement in one direction creates inhibition that stops neural responding

Movement in the opposite direction excites and enhances neural responding

22

3 Types of signals in corollary discharge theory

  1. image displacement signal
  2. motor signal
  3. corollary discharge signal

 

23

image displacement signal

corollary discharge theory

occurs when an image moves across receptors in the retina

24

motor signal

corollary discharge theory

when a signal is sent from the brain to eye muscles

25

corollary discharge signal

corollary discharge theory

copy of the motor signal that goes to the comparator

26

when does the comparator indicate motion has occured

when it receives just one type of signal - IDS or CDS

27

real-motion neuron

only responds with movement from the stimulus, not when the eye moves

28

two brain areas important for detecting motion

middle temporal area

medial superior temporal area

29

What happened in the monkey dot experiment when the dot coherence movement increased

monkey judged the direction more accurately

middle temporal neurons fired more rapidly

30

aperture problem

viewing only a small portion of a larger stimulus can result in misleading information about the direction the stimulus is moving

31

How does the visual system resolve the aperture problem

MT neurons receive signals from many neurons in the striate cortex and combine the signals to figure out the actual direction of motion

Certain neurons in the striate cortex respond to the movement of ends of objects

32

implied motion

when a still image depicts an action involving motion

33

representational momentum

the motion depicted in a picture tends to continue in the observers mind