Flashcards in Chapter 7 - Attitudes Deck (56):
Define an attitude
Lasting, general evaluation of people (including oneself), objects, or issues
What are things such as tangible brand of vodka to intangible drinking and driving which people have attitudes toward are called?
Who initially developed the functional theory of attitudes? and why?
Psychologist Daniel Katz, to explain how attitudes facilitate social behaviour
According to functional theory of attitudes, why do attitudes exist
Because they serve a function for a person, that is they are determined by persons motives, and they will expect that they will need deal with similar information at a future time and start forming attitudes in anticipation of the event
What are the 4 attitude functions (reasons we form them)?
1. Utilitarian function
(based on pain/punishment)
2. Value-expression function
(express consumers central values or self concept, what they say about themselves)
3. Ego-defensive function
(Attitudes that are formed to protect self concept, promote social acceptance)
4. Knowledge function
(Some attitudes formed for need for order, structure, or meaning)
So you gotta know what function your ad/product is serving to appeal to those consumers
What are three distinct clusters of fans (can use sport fans as example)?
(reach them with sports knowledge and relate attendance to peronsal goals and values)
2. Unique, self-expressive experience game goers
More likely to be brand switchers, who are fair weather fans, so advertising cool members of both teams
3. Camaraderie seeking
(These guys wanted to party in small groups before or after, so make it easy for them)
What are the 3 components of an attitude (ABC)
Affect (how they feel about it)
Behaviour (conation, intention to do something)
Cognition (beliefs a consumer has about an attitude object)
What is the hierarchy of effects
Which each of those ABC components of attitudes, there are different levels of importance
Describe the three hierarchies of effect, all resulting in what type of attitude
Cognition to Affect to Behaviour (attitude based on cognitive information processing)
Cognition to behaviour to Affect (attitude based on behavioural learning processes)
Affect to Behaviour to Cognition (attitude based on hedonic consumption)
What si a debate about the experiential hierarchy?
It is the independence of cognition and affect, because affective judgement is the last step in a series of cognitive processes, because earlier steps are sensory registration and retrieval.
What does the independence hypothesis say about forming attitudes?
That cognition and affect involve two separate, partially independent systems, so affective responses do not always require prior cognition.
What is emotional contagion?
So happy people delivering brand message enhance our attitude toward the product
What is the attitude toward the advertisement attitude object?
Preisposition to respond in a favourable or unfavourable manner to a particular advertising stimulus during a particular exposure occasion
Katz attitudes exist because they serve some function. What is the utilitarian function?
Relates to rewards and punishments
Katz attitudes exist because they serve some function. What is the value-expressive function function?
Expresses consumer's values or self-concept
Katz attitudes exist because they serve some function. What is the ego-defensive function?
Protect ourselves from external threats or internal feelings
Katz attitudes exist because they serve some function. What is the knowledge function?
Need for order, structure, or meaning
What does standard learning hierarchy result in? And what does it assume?
It results in strong brand loyalty, and assumes high consumer involvement
What does low-involvement hierarchy mean of consumer, and how are they swayed?
It means consumer does not have strong brand preference, and that they can be swayed by simple stimulus-response connections
What does experiential hierarchy say about consumers?
That they have hedonic motivation and moods, they are susceptible to emotional contagion.
What are the 5 things that influence our attitude about an ad?
1. Attitude toward advertiser
2. Evaluations of ad execution
3. Ad evoked mood
4. Ad arousal effects on consumers
5. Viewing context
What are the two differences with classical and instrumental conditioning for forming attitudes?
Classical: Repeated often
Instrumental: Reinforcement, modeling
What are the three levels of commitment related to level of involvement with attitude object from highest to lowest?
(deep seeded attitudes become part of consumers value system)
(attitudes formed in order to conform to another person or group)
(consumer forms attitudes because it gains rewards or avoids punishments)
What is the principle of cognitive consistency?
Says we value/seek harmony among thoughts, feelings, and behaviours. So we will change components of those to make them consistent.
Describe how the theory of cognitive dissonance changes our attitudes or behaviour
So when a consumer is faced with inconsistencies among their attitudes or behaviours, they take action to resolve the "dissonance"
So consumer knows smoking causes cancer, but does it anyways. She will resolve the dissonance by either satisfying her urge to smoke, or stopping the behaviour
When does post purchase dissonance happen?
When the consumer has a choice between more than one favourable alternative. And marketers can play this up by reaffirming that the consumer made the right choice
What are the 4 techniques to influence a behaviour from attitude with self-perception theory. A lot of salespeople uses these techniques.
1. Low-involvement hierarchy (after the fact)
2. Foot in the door technique (start with small request, such as telemarketer asking if you have 2 minutes, than growing request after that)
3. Low-ball technique (ask for small favour)
4. Door-in-the-face technique (ask for a big favour, then after that you can ask for something smaller. Buy 300, ok what about 20)
What is social judgement theory? (know this, on exam)
We assimilate new information about attitude objects in light of what we already know/feel.
So our initial attitude is the frame of reference
There are what of acceptance and rejection with assimilation and contrast effects, as well as brand preference for social judgement theory
Latitudes of acceptance and rejection with assimilation and contrast effects, as well as brand preference for social judgement theory.
So this is how strongly we accept or reject information. If acceptance we assimilate, if outside it contrasts.
What is balance theory?
What is it used for a lot?
Considers relations among elements a consumer might perceive as belonging together, involving triad structures
used a lot for things like associating a celebrity endorser with your brand
Explain the triad structures with balance theory:
Perception of attitude object
Perception of other person/object
When the triad elements are balance/harmonious, what are the characteristics?
Unit relation and sentiment relation
What is basking in reflected glory?
This is when consumers like to publicize their connection with successful people or organization to enhance their own standing
What are the marketing application of basking in reflected glory?
Marketers using celebrity endorsers
Or Budweiser releasing limited edition fan brews for hockey fans associating with team
can backfire if public opinion shifts, such as with Tiger Woods or Lance Armstrong
What are multi-attribute attitude models?
Consumer's attitudes toward an attitude object depends on beliefs she has about several or many attributes of the object
What are the three elements to multi-attribute attitude models?
1. Attributes of Attitude object
(such as scholarly reputation for uni)
2. Beliefs about AO
(Uni is strong academically)
3. Importance weights
(stresses undergraduates over graduates)
What is the Fishbein Model (3 components) ?
Measures these three components of attitudes:
1. Salient Beliefs about AO
2. Object-attirbute linkages
3. Evaluation of each important attribute
What are the 4 strategic applications of multi-attribute model?
1. Capitalize on relative advantage
(convince that prod attributes are important in brand choice)
2. Strengthen perceived product attribute linkages
(make sure consumers associate certain attributes with the brand)
3. Add a new attribute
(focus on unique positive attributes that consumer has not considered)
4. Influence Competitors ratings
(decrease the attributes of competitors)
What are 4 further considerations under the Extended Fishbein model with theory of reasoned action?
1. Intentions versus behaviour
(measure behavioural intentions, not just intentions)
2. Social pressure
(acknowledge power of people in purchasing decision)
3. Subjective norm
(what we believe other people think we should do)
4. Attitude toward buying
(measure attitude toward the act of buying, not just product)
What are 5 weaknesses to Fishbeins model?
1. Doesn't deal with outcomes of behaviour, including those beyond consumer control
2. Doesn't consider unintentional behaviour, such as impulse acts
3. Doesn't consider that attitudes may not lead to consumption
4. Doesn't consumer the time frame between attitude measurement and behaviour
5. doesn't differentiate between consumers direct perennial experience, and indirect experience
What are two types of normative influences?
1. Descriptive norms
(norms that convey what others are doing)
2. Injunctive norms
(norms that convey what others think you should do)
Descriptive norms can be really powerful, especially when combined with feedback
Why is an attitude general?
Because it applies to more than a momentary event
So for choosing a house between 7 options, describe hierarchy of effects.
So you believe house 2 is best, the affect is why, then behaviour is that you buy it.
You learn by cognitively thinking about it
Choosing chips, talk about hierarchy of effects
So low involvement, you believe doritos are best, you buy it, then you determine if it was best (things like tasting etc). You learn from behaviour
Teachers thought on independence and cognitive-affective model for experiential hierarchy
Teacher thinks some decisions are purely cognitive, and emotion plays no roll. And in others its just emotion. So cognitive model is just description of thinking
How are attitudes towards brands affected by advertising
How strongly we hold previously held attitudes for brand. So if we've never had a perception about alarm force, but think the ad sucks first, then we may think the brand sucks. but if we love TD, then see a bad TD ad, we'll still probably like TD.
What explains why evaluations of products increase after purchase?
Reducing dissonance - Cognitive Dissonance theory
What is the biggest thing marketers can do to decrease post purchase dissonance?
So the marketer can followup with things such as thank you letter, further service offerings, support, etc
If you have really positive brand attitude to say apple, do you have big or small latitude of acceptance?
You'd have a smaller latitude of acceptance, because you have set attitudes with it.
So if you hear about bendgate and have positive brand attitude for apple, you may reject it because hey, you "know" apple makes quality products.
What are 4 ways people balance with balance theory for say a girl that likes Jerry, and Jerry has an earring
-Decides dont like jerry and earring
-Decides she likes both jerry and earring
-She decides she still likes Jerry, but decides that jerry and earring are separate
-I don't really understand last triad, but it looks like she just deosnt have thought about Jerry anymore, and instead just has neutral feelling about Jerry as guy wearing earring
What is most influential multi-attribute model?
Actual Fishbein Model equation
Attitude Score = (consumer rating of each attribute for all brands being compared) x (importance rating for that attribute)
With Fishbein model, does that affect behaviour?
Not necessarily! Teacher can love budweiser brand, but absolutely hate beer in general. So she's probably not gonna buy
What are two tracking studies that measure attitudes?
What are 3 changes to look for with tracking attitudes over time?
1. Changes in different age groups
2. Scenarios about the future
3. Identification of change agents