Chapter 7 - Biomechanics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7 - Biomechanics Deck (99)
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1

what does biomechanics examine?

the internal and external forces acting on the human body and the effects produced by these forces

2

what does biomechanics aid in?

technique analysis and the development of innovative equipment designs

3

where does the knowledge for biomechanics come from?

from sports medicine, athletic therapy, physical therapy, kinesiology and biomechanical engineering

4

Exchange of energy forces

biomechanics

5

quantitative analyses

- involves measurement of variables that are thought to optimize or maximize performance

6

give 3 examples of quantitative analyses

1) pattern of forces using a force platform
2) sequence of muscle activity using electromyography (EMG)
3) 3D movements of each body segment using high speed cinematography

7

qualitative analyses

- involves obtaining information, visually or auditorily to assess performance

8

what 4 things does qualitative analyses require?

1) a framework within which skilled performance can be observed
2) a set of principles with which movement can be analyzed
3) a checklist to use when identifying errors
4) techniques to use for error detection and correction

9

kinematics study of motion

the study of time and pace factors of a body in motion

10

what are the 4 variables used to describe motion?

time, displacement, velocity and acceleration

11

linear

straight line

12

angular

around an axis

13

time

temporal characteristics of a performance, either of the total skill or its phases

14

displacement

length and direction of the path an athlete or object takes from start to finish

15

angular displacement

direction of, and smallest angular change between the rotating bodys initial and final position

16

velocity

displacement per unit of time

17

angular velocity

angular displacement per unit of time

18

acceleration

rate of change of velocity

19

angular acceleration

angular velocity per unit of time

20

kinetics study of forces

focuses on the various forces that are associated with a movement

21

internal forces

generated by muscles pulling via their tendons on bones, and to bone-on-bone forces exerted across joint surfaces

22

external forces

acting from without, such as the force of gravity or the force from any body contact with the ground, environment, sport equipment or opponent

23

scalar quantities

have only magnitude (time)

24

give 3 examples of scalar quantities

speed, work, power

25

vector quantities

have magnitude and direction (force) displacement, velocity, momentum, lift

26

Straight line segments with one end defined as the tail and the arrow tip defined as the head

vectors

27

Levers

simple machines that augment the amount of work done by an applied force

28

fulcrum

a rigid body (i.e., long bone) that rotates about a fixed point (i.e., joint) called a fulcrum (F)

29

true or false: acting on the lever is a resistive force (R, i.e., weight of a limb segment) and applied force (AF, i.e., muscle contraction)

true

30

what are the 3 classes of levers?

a) first class
b) second class
c) third class