Chapter 7: Bone Tissue Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7: Bone Tissue Deck (105)
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1
Q

__ &__ are the most durable remains of a once living body?

A

bone & teeth

2
Q

osteology

A

study of bone

3
Q

What is the skeletal system composed of?

A

bone, cartilage, & ligaments

4
Q

cartilage

A

precursor to bone

5
Q

ligament

A

hold bones together at the joints

6
Q

tendons

A

attach muscle to bone

7
Q

What are the functions of the skeletal system? (6)

A
  • support
  • protection
  • movement
  • electrolyte balance
  • acid/base balance
  • blood formation
8
Q

Flat bone

A

thin; protects soft organs

9
Q

Long bone

A

longer than wide; acted upon muscles

10
Q

Short bone (2)

A
  • equal in length & width

- glide across one another in multiple directions

11
Q

irregular bones

A

elaborate shapes that do not fit into any of the other categories

12
Q

compact bone (2)

A
  • outer shell of long bone

- makes up 3/4 of bone weight

13
Q

diaphysis

A

shaft; cylinder compact bone to provide leverage

14
Q

medullary cavity

A

space in the diaphysis of long bone that contains bone marrow

15
Q

epiphyses

A

enlarged ends of long bone (strengthen attachment)

16
Q

spongy bone (2)

A
  • covered by durable compact bone

- makes up 1/4 of bone weight

17
Q

articular cartilage (3)

A
  • made up of hyaline cartilage
  • covers the joint surfaces where one bone meets another
  • allows for free movement of joints
18
Q

nutrient foramina

A

minute holes in the bone surface that allows blood vessels to penetrate

19
Q

periosteum

A

external sheath that covers the bone except where there is articular cartilage

20
Q

what part of the periosteum is important to growth of bone & healing of fractures

A

inner osteogenic layer

21
Q

endosteum

A

thin layer of reticular connective tissue lining marrow cavity

22
Q

epiphyseal plate (3)

A
  • area of hyaline cartilage that separates the marrow spaces of the epiphysis & diaphysis
  • growth plate
  • enables growth in length
23
Q

Construction of flat bone (2)

A
  • sandwich like structure: spongy bone in between compact bone (2)
  • both surfaces of flat bone covered with periosteum
24
Q

_____ is a type of joint

A

suture

25
Q

diploe

A

spongy layer in cranium that absorbs shock

26
Q

bone is connective tissue that consists of ___, ____, and _____

A

cells, fibers, and ground substance (made up of matrix)

27
Q

What are the 4 types of bone cells?

A

osteogenic, osteoblast, osteocytes, & osteoclasts

28
Q

osteogenic (osteroprogenitor) cells (3)

A
  • stem cells found in endosteum, periosteum, & central canals
  • undergoes mitosis
  • arise from embryonic mesenchymal cells
29
Q

What do osteogenic cells produce?

A

osteroblasts

30
Q

osteoblast (3)

A
  • nonmitotic
  • lined up as single layer under endosteum & periosteum
  • synthesize soft organic matter of matrix
31
Q

What stimulates osteogenic cells to multiply more rapidly? What does this increase?

A

stress & fracture; osteocytes to rebuild bone

32
Q

What is secreted by osteoblasts?What is it thought to be?

A

osteocalcin: thought to be structural protein of bone

33
Q

What does osteocalcin stimulate?

A

stimulates insulin secretion of pancreas

34
Q

osteocytes (2)

A
  • former osteoblast that have become trapped in the matrix they have deposited
  • contribute to homeostasis (phosphate & calcium ions //bone density)
35
Q

lacunae

A

tiny cavities where osteocytes reside

36
Q

canaliculi

A

channels that connect lacunae; are reached by cytoplasmic processes

37
Q

osteoclasts (3)

A
  • bone dissolving cells (mesenchymal) found on the bone surface
  • different origin from rest of bone cells
  • very large having 3-4 nuclei
38
Q

Where does osteoclasts develop from?

A

same bone marrow stem cells that give rise to blood cells

39
Q

ruffled borders

A

side facing bone surface that increases surface area of the plasma membrane

40
Q

resorption bays

A

howships lacunae

pits on surface of bone where osteoclasts reside

41
Q

remodeling

A

results from combined action of osteoclasts and osteoblast (balance of removing & building)

42
Q

What 2 structural materials are bone made of?

A

ceramic(hydroxyapatite) & a polymer (collagen)

43
Q

What allows the bone to support (hardness) the body weight? Gives bone some degree of flexibility?

A

ceramic (hydroxyapatite); protein

44
Q

rickets

A

soft bones due to deficiency of calcium salts (too little hydroxyapatite)
bones are very “bendy”

45
Q

hydroxyapatitie

A

mineral part in bone

46
Q

Brittle bone disease

A

excessively brittle bone due to lack of protein, collagen

47
Q

perforating canals

A

Volkmans canal

transverse or diagonal canals

48
Q

what does spongy bone consist of? (3)

A
  • spicules (silvers of bone)
  • trabeculae (thin plates of bone)
  • spaces filled with red bone marrow
49
Q

Does spongy bone contain central canals of osteons?

A

very few

50
Q

What is the purpose of trabeculae?

A

develop along bone’s line of stress

51
Q

bone marrow

A

soft tissue occupying marrow cavities of long bones & small spaces of spongy bones

52
Q

red marrow

A

contains hemopoietic tissue that produces blood cells

53
Q

yellow marrow

A

fatty marrow that does not produce blood; can transform back to red marrow in the event of chronic anemia

54
Q

ossification

A

the formation of bone

55
Q

a ____ ____ remains a metabolically active organ

A

mature bone

56
Q

osteoclast responsibility of ________; osteoblast responsibility of _______

A

resorption; formation

57
Q

mineral deposition

A

crystallization process in which calcium phosphate & other ions are taken from blood plasma & deposited in bone tissue

58
Q

____ produce collagen fibers that spiral the length of the osteon

A

osteoblasts

59
Q

What helps harden the matrix?

A

encrusted fibers with minerals (hydroxyapatite) via osteoblasts

60
Q

___ &___ ion concentration must reach a critical value called ___ ____ for crystal formation to occur

A

calcium & phosphate; solubility product

61
Q

Who allows for salts to precipitate in the bone marrow? how do they do this?

A

osteoblast; by neutralizing inhibitors

62
Q

What is the suppose of inhibitors in tissues?

A

to prevent calcification

63
Q

mineral resorption

A
  • the process of dissolving bone & releasing minerals into the blood
  • performed by osteoclasts at the ruffled border
64
Q

What type of pumps secrete hydrogen into spaces between osteoclast & bone space? What follows?

A

hydrogen pumps; chloride ions by electrical attraction

65
Q

What dissolves bone mineral during mineral resorption?

A

hydrochloric acid

66
Q

What enzyme digests the collagen during mineral resorption?

A

acid phosphatase

67
Q

Other components of phosphate? (4)

A

DNA & RNA
ATP
phospholipids
pH buffer

68
Q

Other components of calcium? (3)

A

neuron communication
muscle contraction
blood clotting

69
Q

What 3 hormones regulate calcium homeostasis?

A

calcitriol
calcitonin
parathyroid hormone

70
Q

Calcitriol

A

a form of vitamin D produced by the sequential action of the skin, liver, and kidney

71
Q

Explain how calcitriol processed?

A
  1. epidermal keratinocytes use UV radiation to convert 7-dehydrocholesterol to previtamin D (skin)
  2. Liver adds hydroxyl group-> calcidiol
  3. Kidney adds another hydroxyl group-> calcitriol
72
Q

What can not be absorbed with calcitriol?

A

calcium or phosphate

73
Q

Which hormone raises blood calcium concentration?

A

calcitriol

74
Q

Functions of calcitriol? (3)

A
  • increase Ca absorption by small intestine
  • increase Ca resorption from the skeleton
  • promote kidney reaborption of Ca ions (so less lost in urine)
75
Q

What is necessary for bone deposition?

A

adequate calcium and phosphate

76
Q

Calcitonin

A

secreted by C cells (clear cells) of theTHYROID GLAND when Ca concentration rises too high

77
Q

How does calcitonin lower blood calcium concentrations?

A
  • osteoclast inhibition

- osteoblast stimulation

78
Q

Parathyroid hormone (2)

A
  • secreted by parathyroid gland (beside thyroid gland)

- released with low calcium blood levels

79
Q

What are the 2 types of ossification?

A

intramembranous ossification

endochondral ossification

80
Q

Bone can grow in 2 directions?

A

length & width

81
Q

epiphyseal plate

A

a region of transition from cartilage to bone

82
Q

interstitial growth

A

bones increase in length

83
Q

appositional growth

A

bones increase in width

84
Q

what does disturbance of calcium homeostasis disrupt?

A

other organ systems

85
Q

which crystals attract more calcium & phosphate from solution during mineral deposition?

A

first few crystals

86
Q

abnormal calcification

A

ectopic ossification

calcified mass in soft organs (calculus)

87
Q

braces

A

dissolving bone ahead of tooth performed by osteoclast (highest pressure) & depositing bone more slowly by osteoblast behind tooth

88
Q

rickets vs. osteomalacia

A

basically the same disorder that describes the abnormal softness of bone due to lack of hydroxyapatite, but referred to as rickets in children

89
Q

which hormones are used to raise calcium levels? lower?

A

raise: calcitriol & parathyroid hormone
lower: calcitonin

90
Q

Is phosphate levels tightly regulated like calcium? how is it?

A

NO: Calcitriol ->absorption by small intestines

PTH ->lowers phosphate by urinary excretion

91
Q

stress fracture

A

break caused by abnormal trauma to a bone

92
Q

pathological fracture

A

break in a bone weakened by some other disease

93
Q

What structural characteristics are fractures classified? (3)

A
  1. direction of fracture line
  2. break in the skin
  3. multiple pieces
94
Q

nondisplaced fracture

A

fracture where bone partially or fully breaks in one part, but is still aligned (clean break)

95
Q

displaced fracture

A

fracture where bone breaks into 2 pieces, but is no longer aligned

96
Q

comminuted fracture

A

A fracture in which a bone is broken, splintered, or crushed into a number of pieces

97
Q

greenstick fracture

A

when a bone bends and cracks, instead of breaking completely into separate pieces. (bowed)

98
Q

when you break a bone what happens first?

A

hematoma (leakage of blood)

99
Q

Steps for bone replacement after it is broken?

A
  1. hematoma
  2. soft callus formation
  3. hard callus formation via osteroblast
  4. bone remodeling (small fragments removed via osteoclasts)
100
Q

Closed reduction vs. open reduction

A

treatment for fracture

closed: manipulation into normal position without surgery
open: involves surgical exposure (plates, screws)

101
Q

cast

A

used to stabilize & immobilize movement

102
Q

osteoporosis

A

severe loss of bone density; leads to widows hump

103
Q

traction

A

used to treat femur fractures in children

104
Q

achondroplastic dwarfism (2)

A
  • spontaneous mutation produces dominant alleles

- normal torso, short limbs

105
Q

pituary dwarfism (2)

A
  • lack of growth hormone

- normal proportions with short stature