Chapter 7: Cell Organelles/Cell Theory/Cell Transport Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7: Cell Organelles/Cell Theory/Cell Transport Deck (59):
0

Who was the first person to see and identify cells?

Robert Hooke

1

What are the 4 components to the cell theory?

1.) cells are the basic unit of life
2.) all living things are composed of cells
3.) cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things
4.) new cells are produced from existing cells

2

What are the similarities between a transmission electron microscope, scanning electron microscope, and confocal light microscope?

All are used to be able to see cells on a molecular level.

3

What does a confocal light microscope do?

Builds 3-D image.

4

What does a transmission electron microscope do?

It uses electrons to pass through thin samples.

5

What does a scanning electron microscope do?

It operates in air and in a solution to produce 3-D images.

6

Why are fluorescent labels used?

To study molecules in a cells. (Such as organelles)

7

What 2 characteristics must a cell have?

1.) it must be surrounded by a cell membrane
2.) it must contains DNA (genetic info)

8

What is the difference between eukaryotes and prokaryotes? Example of each?

Eukaryotes contain a nucleus and prokaryotes do not.
Eukaryotes- animal and plant cells
Prokaryotes- bacteria

9

True of False: Eukaryotes are more complex than prokaryotes.

True

10

True of false: Prokaryotes are much larger than eukaryotes.

False

11

What is a small molecule that functions within a cell?

An organelle

12

What is the portion of the cell outside the nucleus?

Cytoplasm

13

What is the center of cell? (Control center)

Nucleus

14

Which 2 microscopes build a 3D image?

Confocal light microscope and the scanning electron microscope

15

Which microscopes use electrons?

Scanning ELECTRON microscope and transmission ELECTRON microscope.

16

Where is DNA found in the cell?

Nucleus

17

What is chromatin and where is it found in the cell?

DNA bound to protein; the nucleus.

18

What is the function of a nucleolus?

It is where ribosome assembly begins.

19

What contains pores allowing protein, RNA, etc. into and out of the cell?

Nuclear envelope.

20

What are ribosomes composed of?

RNA and protein.

21

What do ribosomes do?

They assemble proteins based on instructions from the nucleus.

22

What is the function of the Rough ER?

Synthesized proteins that are being exported out of the cell.

23

What is the function of the Smooth ER?

It synthesizes membrane lipids detoxifies drugs. (Commonly found in the liver)

24

What is the difference between the smooth ER and rough ER?

The rough ER is covered in ribosomes giving it a rough appearance and the smooth ER is not.

25

What is the function of the Golgi apparatus?

It modifies, sorts, and packages proteins for storage or secretion and receives proteins for the Rough ER.

26

What are the functions of lysosomes?

Filled with digestive enzymes in order to digest lipids, carbs, and proteins while breaking down old organelles.

27

What is the function of a vacuole?

Stores water, salt, proteins, and carbohydrates while maintains the cells homeostasis.
Serve as structural support in plants.

28

What makes the chloroplasts and mitochondria different from the rest of the organelles?

They have a double membrane and both contain their own DNA

29

What is the function of the mitochondria?

Converts chemical energy stored in food into compounds more useful to the cell.

30

What is the function of a chloroplast?

It is found is plants and captures energy from the sun and converts it into a chemical energy.

31

What organelle(s) are found in plant cells but not animal?

Chloroplasts and cell wall

32

What is the cytoskeleton?

A network of protein filaments that are mostly used for movement and structure.

33

What do the centrioles do?

They organize cell division.

34

What does the cell membrane have the helps move materials from in and out of the cell? What are they made out of?

Protein channels made out of protein.

35

Define diffusion.

The movement of particles from a higher concentration tons lower.

36

Define osmosis.

The movement of water molecules from a higher concentration to a lower.

37

Define facilitated diffusion.

Transporting molecules that are too big for diffusion into the membrane using protein channels.

38

What is active transport?

The movement AGAINST the concentration gradient and requires energy.

39

What is the function of a cell membrane?

1.) regulation
2.) protection
3.) support

40

What are the two parts of a membrane

Head: phosphate
Tail: fatty acid

41

What is the function of a cell wall?

To provide support and protection.

42

What is the cell membrane composed of?

Carbohydrate fibers and proteins.

43

What are the levels of organization of cells?

Cells
Tissue
Organ
Organ system

44

What are two examples of endocytosis?

Pinocytosis and phagocytosis

45

Define pinocytosis.

Taking in fluid. (To drink)

46

Define phagocytosis.

Taking in chunks. (To eat)

47

Define endocytosis.

To take in by engulfing. (Amoeba do this)

48

How to find concentration?

Mass of solutes per volume of solution.

49

Define equilibrium.

When the system has same concentration throughout; no net movement.

50

Isotonic

When concentration is equal

51

Hypotonic

More diluted side.

52

Hypertonic

More concentrated side

53

Define osmotic pressure.

Pressure on the hypertonic side of selectively permeable membrane.

54

Why aren't animal cells harmed by osmotic pressure?

Blood is isotonic.

55

Why aren't plant cells harmed by osmotic pressure?

Plants have a rigid cell wall.

56

Define exocytosis.

Releasing large amounts of material from the cell by having a vacuole surround the material and fuse with the cell membrane.

57

What is the most abundant life form?

Unicellular organisms (single-celled organism)

58

Cell specialization

Cells developing in different ways to preform different tasks.