Chapter 7: Environmental and Nutritional Diseases Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7: Environmental and Nutritional Diseases Deck (49):
1

This is the study of adverse effects of chemicals (poisons) on living organisms.

Toxicology

2

These type of chemicals are those that are not produced/expected in an organism, but found inside.

Xenobiotic

3

What organ is most vulnerable to environmental pollution?

Lungs

4

This environmental pollution is produced by automobile exhaust leading to smog. It can cause an increased risk of asthma or emphysema leading to increased inflammation and decreased function.

Ozone

5

These environmental pollutants are formed by burning fossil fuels and can be

Sulfur dioxide, particulates, and acid aerosols

6

This is a colorless, tasteless, odorless, non-irritating gas that is created due to incomplete oxidation of carbonaceous material. It can lead to CNS depression and lethal hypoxia.

Carbon monoxide

7

What is the most common indoor pollutant?

Tobacco smoke

8

This is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. It is formed by the radioactive decay of uranium in soil and can increase the risk of lung cancer, especially when combined with a previous lung condition or smoking.

Radon

9

These indoor pollutants are airborne particles that contain or were from living organisms.

Bioaerosols

10

What are the four most common metallic environmental pollutants?

Lead, mercury, arsenic, and cadmium

11

This metallic environmental pollutant is more likely to be absorbed by children and can cause irreversible CNS defects. Adults tend to experience reversible peripheral neuropathies as side effects.

Lead

12

This metallic environmental pollutant is very sensitive to the developing brain and bioaccumulates in neurons (blocks ion channels).

Mercury (methyl mercury)
Thimerosol (ethyl mercury): not as harmful

13

This condition may result from toxic exposure to mercury and can result in ataxia, numbness, deafness, blindness, or cerebral palsy.

Minamata disease

14

This metallic environmental pollutant interferes with oxidative phosphorylation and can cause characteristic skin reactions. Exposure may lead to an increased risk of skin/lung cancer.

Arsenic

15

This metallic environmental pollutant is found in some batteries and may damage lungs, kidneys, and bones. It is more of a modern problem.

Cadmium

16

This condition is a result of toxic exposure to cadmium and can result in bone loss and renal failure.

Itai-Itai disease

17

Benzene is an example of this industrial/agricultural toxin.

Organic solvents

18

Tar and soot are examples of this industrial/agricultural toxin.

Polycyclic hydrocarbons

19

Pesticide and DDT are examples of this industrial/agricultural toxin.

Organochlorines

20

This toxic substance can result in an increase in cardiovascular disorders. Various cancers may arise from its usage (lung, oral, pharyngeal, esophageal, pancreatic, and bladder).

Tobacco

21

This toxic substance may alter mood. In excess it can cause psychological and physical harm and can be absorbed, unaltered, in the stomach and small intestine.

Alcohol (ethanol/ethyl alcohol)

22

What metabolizes alcohol in the liver?

Cytochrome P-450

23

This condition results when there is a defective acetaldehyde dehydrogenase. It can result in flushing, tachycardia, and tachypnea. It affects 50% of Asians.

Alcohol Flush Reaction

24

Steatosis and cirrhosis are commonly associated with what type of alcoholism?

Chronic alcoholism

25

This syndrome is a result of chronic alcoholism. It is characterized by thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency, varying forms of amnesia, and confabulation (creation of fake memories).

Korsakoff syndrome

26

How many drinks per day can increase HDLs and inhibits clotting?

1 drink/day

27

This condition is a result of drinking in the 1st trimester and can result in permanent CNS damage, microcephaly, cognitive delays, and facial malformations.

Fetal alcohol syndrome

28

This type of mechanical trauma is characterized by damage to the epidermis.

Abrasion

29

This type of mechanical trauma is characterized by blunt trauma, which may damage vessels and result in extravasation of blood.

Contusion (bruising)

30

This type of mechanical trauma is characterized by jagged borders and tears of tissue. Can be caused by a blunt object.

Laceration

31

This type of mechanical trauma is characterized by smooth borders at the site of tissue injury and usually caused by a sharp object.

Incision

32

This type of mechanical trauma is caused by a slender object that may or may not have an exit site.

-Puncture
-If there is an exit site it is characterized as a penetrating wound

33

This type of injury is caused by excessive heat or cold. The severity depends on the depth of damage, % of body surface affected, and internal damage (inhalation).

Thermal injury

34

What are some of the major health concerns of a thermal injury?

-Hypovolemic shock: >20% of surface is affected
-Sepsis, which leads to organ failure (most common is Pseudomonas aeruginosa)

35

1st and 2nd degree burns are characterized by pink skin, blisters, and is painful. What type of thickness are these characterized as?

Partial thickness

36

3rd and 4th degree burns are characterized by epidermal and dermal destruction. The skin is white/charred/dry and requires anesthetic to deal with. Necrosis and sepsis are big risks after this type of burn. What type of thickness are these characterized as?

Full-thickness

37

What type of tissue is typically formed as a 3rd or 4th degree burn is healing?

Scar/fibrous tissue

38

This type of thermal injury is characterized by an internal temperature (rectal) of >/=105.1 F. A progression from heat cramps, to heat exhaustion, and eventually to heat stroke commonly occurs.

Hyperthermia

39

This type of thermal injury is characterized by an internal temperature of <50), atrial fibrillation, and cellular chilling/freezing.

Hypothermia

40

This type of injury is caused by low/high voltages and can result in thermal burns, cardiorespiratory failure, or medullary paralysis.

Electrical injury

41

What determines the severity of electrical injury?

Amperage and pathway the electricity takes.

42

This is high energy radiation that is capable of liberating an electron and thereby creating an ionization cascade

Ionizing radiation

43

What is CT?

X-ray computed tomography

44

What factors determine the severity of ionizing radiation?

-Rate of delivery
-Field size (larger=worse)
-Tissues being targeted
-Radiolysis
-Vascular damage

45

This measures the dosage of ionizing radiation.

Dosimeter

46

What is the term used to describe a narrowing of the field size for ionizing radiation?

Collimation

47

What are some common consequences of ionizing radiation?

-Carcinogensis
-Fibrosis

48

What types of cells are the sensitive to ionizing radiation?

-Labile cells are the most sensitive
-Hematopoietic and lymphoid cells are sensitive as well
-Ocular lens (cataracts)

49

Are mature red blood cells radioresistant?

Yes