Chapter 7 Fetal Learning Flashcards Preview

KNES 364 Exam 2 > Chapter 7 Fetal Learning > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 7 Fetal Learning Deck (21):
1

When does nurture begin?

Prenatally, in utero
Uterine life  learning opportunities
Learning depends on what mom does
Old wives’ tale vs. old scientists’ tale
Everything mom does =
potential source of stimulation to fetus

2

How to study fetal sensitivity & responsivity?

Non-invasive techniques for humans
Aborted fetuses & preemies
Heart rate & movement
Ultrasound & cerebral blood flow
More invasive techniques for non-human animals

3

Advantages and Disadvantages of Ultrasound

Imaging (e.g., real-time ultrasound) permits non-invasive behavioral study of human fetuses
But limited:
poor visual res
poor temporal res. in 4D
incomplete view of fetus
limited experimental control
Increasing concerns about fetal exposure to ultrasound, particularly for long periods necessary for extensive fetal study

4

Do fetuses benefit from
 the potential stimulation

Sensitive?
Responsive?
“Take advantage” of opportunities for learning?

5

To be sensitive to opportunities for learning…

Need perceptual systems
Auditory
Tactile
Visual
Vestibular


Which system comes first?
Tactile
Vestibular
Auditory
Visual

6

To be responsive to potential sources of stimulation…

Need physiological responses!
Heart rate changes
State changes
Need behaviors!
Repertoire of movements

7

Fetal movements
 Prechtl (1986)

Head
Mouth/throat
Body, stretch
Eyes
Breath
Limb
Hand
Hand/face

8

Time-line of Prenatal Movements

5-6 wks - head, back
6-7 wks - limbs, startles
7-10 wks - limb waves, body bends
head, limbs separate
open mouth, hiccup, hands to face, “breathing”
12 wks - arm movements directed to objects
• 13 wks - 16 different types of movements
• 16 wks - thumb-sucking, eyes

9

Prenatal Movements

Movements are rhythmic, increasing evening, decreasing morning

Whole-body movements peak at 14-16 wks postconception

Shaping the skeletal system and central nervous system structure

10

Study fetal learning by?

movement
that means, we can begin to study motor development prenatally

11

Human Fetuses Respond to Maternal Stimulation: Increased Movement

Vibration on mom’s abdomen:
Nothing at 20 wks, more movement at 35 wks
Mom foot massage:
Increased movement at 20 weeks, suggesting mom physiological changes detected by fetus
Mom hand massage:
No change in fetal movement at 20 weeks

12

Human Fetuses Respond to Passive Maternal Movement: Heart Rate

Moms in rocking chair (front/back movement) or glider (sideways movement)
37-week fetuses
Heart rate acceleration to 26s and 5s rocking
No change in heart rate for glider

13

To take advantages of opportunities for learning…

Something to learn about ✔
Sensitivity to info ✔
Motor responses✔
Ability to learn?

14

Can rat fetuses learn odor?
Blass (1990)

Amniotic fluid’s distinct smell & taste
Manipulated smell on mom’s nipple
Nipple painted w/ her amniotic fluid
Another nipple painted w/ another dam’s amniotic fluid
DV = which nipple pups choose to nurse from
Result = choose to nurse form nipple painted w/ mom
If injected with flavor…
Odor learning important for survival!

15

Fetal olfactory learning
(Schaal, 2000)

What is the relation between prenatal experiences & response to odor in human newborns?

Ss = babies of 24 pregnant women
½ moms ate anise (licorice) during pregnancy
½ did not eat anise
At birth, infants exposed to anise odor vs. control odor
DV’s at birth
Head turns & facial expressions

Implications:
Fetuses detect & remember odor information from pregnant mother’s diet
Maternal diet during pregnancy can influence infant behavior

16

Prenatal flavor preferences: 


Does exposure to smell & taste influence preferences after weaning?
Ss: Babies of 3 groups of pregnant women
Carrot juice during last trimester
Carrot juice 1st months of breastfeeding
Control group (water, no carrots)

Procedure: infants offered plain & carrot-flavored cereal
DVs: negative facial expressions, how much carrot cereal infants eat

Carrot juice prenatal & breastmilk infants liked carrots
Showed fewer negative facial expressions to carrot cereal & ate more carrot cereal

Implications:
Flavors consumed by pregnant women --> fetus or newborn
transmitted flavor influences postnatal responses to flavor in solid foods
Early flavor experiences may provide foundation for cultural & ethnic differences in cuisine

17

Habituation

Habituation method:
Habituation = decrease in response to repeated stimuli
Repeat stimulus over and over until you don’t respond that much to a stimulus
(throwing a fake spider at someone over and over)

18

Habituation (2)

Speech
Repeated speech
Experimental & control groups

19

Fetuses can learn syllables


Habituation method:
Habituation = decrease in response to repeated stimuli
Repeatedly played “Ba-bi” & measured heart rate (habituate)
Tested with “Bi-ba” (dishabituate?)

20

Fetuses can also

Recognize mom’s voice (Kisilvesky et al., 2003)
Heard passage, measured FHR
Differentiate male and female voices (Lecanuet et al., 1993)
Heard sentence, measured habituation
By 32 weeks gestation, differentiate tones (Sandman et al., 1997)
Heard tones, measured habituation

21

Fetuses Respond to Dad’s Voice but Prefer Mom’s Voice after Birth

Dads read stories to 37-wk fetus (7 days)
Test 38-wk fetus with dad & mom voices
Fetuses increase HR to dad & to mom
Test newborns with dad & mom voices
Newborns turn head to mom voice but not dad voice