Flashcards in Chapter 7: How Did Geography and History Affect the Worldviews of the Aztec and the Spanish? Deck (45):
Where did most of the original societies lived?
in the central basin, the Valley of Mexico
What was the largest lake called?
What was Geography of Mexico like?
Geography of Mexico includes deserts, mountains, tropical forests, ranchland, rich farmland, and sea coasts on the east and west.
What did the Aztec call themselves? And, what helped define them?
The Aztec called themselves Mexica. Pre-columbian and the Americas are defining people and lands from a European ethnocentric viewpoint. The indigenous societies of the continent did not define themselves in relation to Columbus or as living in the Americas.
How much did Spain occupie?
Spain occupies about 80% of the Iberian Peninsula, the Mediterranean Sea is on the southeast side of Spain, the Atlantic Ocean is on the west side, and the Strait of Gibraltar separates it from Africa.
What did the Spanish monarchs wanted towards the end of the 15th century?
Wanted to increase wealth and prestige of Spain by exploring and colonizing new lands. Spain’s location on the Atlantic Ocean was an important factor.
What was climate of Spain like and was it isolated?
The central region of Spain is quite isolated from the rest of spain and from Europe. Climate of Spain is generally rainy in the north and moderated by the ocean, winters are mild and summers are cool.
What was Spain made up of?
individual kingdoms, the mountains and difficulty in navigating the rivers played a huge role in separating them. This regionalism helped shape Spain’s history and culture.
Aztec or Mexica were one of several Nahuatl-speaking what?
Aztec or Mexica, were one of several Nahuatl-speaking groups that included the Culhua-Mexica, the Mexica, and the Tenocha who left the desert-like country of northern Mexico and migrated southward over many years.
What did they do to follow Huitziilopochtli? (Aztec)
One story says that they left because they had offended their main god, Huitzilopochtli, by cutting down a forbidden tree.
They followed Huitzilopochtli, who they believed spoke to their priests and force their followers to keep moving. They believed they were the chosen people of Huitzilopochtli and he would lead them to the land of their destiny.
During the 12th or 13th century where did they end up? (Aztec)
after several generations of going southward, they came to the Valley of Mexico, led by their chieftain, Tenoch. When they arrived, the best lands were taken and they were regarded as barbarous and uncultured people, and they were driven from one location to another.
By the 14th century what alliances and confederations did the Aztec make?
By the 14th century, Alliances and confederations were formed like Tepanecs, Cholulas, and Tlaxcalans. They would have conflicts with the Aztec. Legend has it that the Culhua, most powerful society in the Valley, forced the Aztec to live on the rocky land of Tizapan, an area full of poisonous snakes, thinking it would kill them. Instead, the Aztec captured the snakes and roasted them for food.
In Aztec legends what battle was always happening?
Between night and day
What is the story behind Huitzilopochtli?
Old goddess Coatlicue was pregnant and her eldest daughter, Coyolxauhqui, convinced her 400 brothers in killing her mother. Huitzilopochtli learned of this just in time and burst from Coatlicue’ s belly fully grown and armed and killed Coyolxauhqui and her brothers. She rose to become the moon and the brothers, the stars.
How does the Aztec believe Huitzilopochtli is?
Aztec believed Huitzilopochtli became the sun, that battled and overcame the moon and stars each day as he rode into the sky.
Where did the Aztec eventually settle and why did they think it was their destiny to be there?
Aztec settled on a swampy island in the middle of Lake Texcoco after moving for so many years. They knew it was their land of destiny because they saw an eagle perched on a nopal cactus, holding a rattlesnake- the sign that had been foretold to their leader, Tenoch, by Huitzilopochtli.
What did the eagle symbolize for the Aztec?
The eagle symbolizes both the sun and Huitzilopochtli; the red fruit of the cactus represents the human hearts offered as sacrifice. At that location, Tenoch and his people were to build their city and honour Huitzilopochtli.
What were the societies that surrounded Tenochtitlan?
three most powerful societies in the Valley; the Chichimec, the Culhuacan, and the Tepanec.
Aztec, What provided protection from possible attacks and how did the neighbouring societies affect them?
Limited access to the city through the causeways Aztec absorbed the manners and traditions of the societies around them.
What were the Aztec's traditional society based on and how did it change?
based on constant movement, but after settling at Lake Texcoco, began to develop new culture built on the history of their migration, strong religious beliefs, and legacy of societies that flourished before them.
What Legacy was left by the Romans?
Christian belief system.
What were the Northern European tribes?
Northern European tribes included Ostrogoths, Franks, and the Visigoths then established themselves in much of southern Europe and throughout the peninsula.
Where did the Moors cross over from?
Strait of Gibraltar from North Africa.
How long did Muslim rule in Spain last for?
more than 700 years
Who became important cultural centers in Europe?
Cordoba and then Granada
Before the reconquista who could practice religions?
Muslims, Jews, and Christians. A few northern regions, resisted Muslim invaders and stayed Christian.
Who were not accepted in most of Europe?
Muslims and Jews
what is the reconquista and who lead it at first?
Move to retake the Iberian land under Muslim control, led by rulers of Kingdom of Castile
Who united their armies and who declared support for crusade?
Aragon and Catalonia, and the pope; Castile captured the cities of Cordoba and Cadiz.
What kingdom did King Ferdinand V and Queen Isabella I take over to end Moorish control?
Granada, south Spain.
What did many Christians believe?
their duty to carry the word of God and convert non-believers to Catholicism.
By Spanish conquistadors carrying tradition what did they feel?
felt they were fighting for God and their country. fought both religious and nationalistic reasons.
Who were sent to new lands to teach beliefs and customs of the Catholic Church?
Tenochtitlan was built on what and what were the lakes like?
island on Lake Texcoco, one of the two saltwater lakes. The other lakes in the Valley were freshwater lakes.
What does the Legacy left by the Moors include?
- important schools of astronomy, mathematics, and architecture
- illuminated manuscripts and murals, showed strong influence of Islamic and - Byzantine artistic style known as Mozarabic.
- Mozarabic is known as the first genuinely Spanish national art
- great libraries containing books on varied topics such as architecture, astrology, astronomy, pharmacology, etc
- a large collection of classical documents, especially works of the ancient philosophers such as Aristotle
- beautiful buildings that included enclosed courtyards with fountains and decorative tiles.
What did Islam prohibited and what did it cause?
the depiction of the human or animal form in artwork, geometrical shapes were used in sculpture and art.
What city was looked up to in Europe and why?
city of Cordoba, as a major centre of learning and the arts
How Did Contact with Other Meso-American Societies Influence the Aztec?
Each of the Meso American societies had its own unique customs and traditions and many similarities because they all had incorporated the ideas and beliefs of the ancient Meso-American civilizations that had existed before them.
Who were the Toltec and what was their capital city?
Toltec were a warrior society that dominated most of central Mexico Capital city was Tula
What was the Toltec's language?
was Nahuatl, same language spoken by the Aztec’s
What did the Toltec's ceremonies include?
sun worship and human sacrifice
What did the Aztec use Tula for?
as the architectural model for their capital city, Tenochtitlan.
What did the Aztec adopt of Tula's?
architecture and sculptures, wanted to be so much like them that they looted the ceremonial centres of Tula and erected the stolen sculptures in own temples
Who was Quetzalcoatl?
- a god common across Meso-American societies.
- known as the feathered or plumed serpent, a god of wind, fire, fertility, wisdom, and practical knowledge.