Chapter 7 Learning & Reward Flashcards Preview

Introduction to Psychology > Chapter 7 Learning & Reward > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 7 Learning & Reward Deck (44):
1

Learning

Acquisition of new knowledge from EXPERIENCE that results in PERMANENT CHANGE

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Habituation

Repeated exposure to stimulus --> reduction in response

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Sensitization

Exposure to stimulus --> increased response to another

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John B Watson

Behaviouralist movement

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Behaviouralism

Against consciousness, mental states, mind, content, imagery

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Ivan Pavlov

Salivation of dogs

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Classical Conditioning

Neutral stimulus produces a response after being paired with a stimulus that produces a response

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Unconditioned Stimulus

Reliably produces naturally occurring reaction

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Unconditioned Response

Reflexive reaction produced by unconditioned response

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Conditioned Stimulus

Previously neutral stimulus that produces response after being paired with US

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Conditioned Response

Resembles unconditioned response but produced by CS

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Acquisition

Stage when CS and US are paired together

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Second-Order Conditioning

CS with a stimulus associated with US

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Extinction

Gradual elimination of a learned response when CS is presented without US

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Spontaneous Recovery

Tendency of learned behaviour to recover from extinction

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Generalization

CR is observed with slightly different CS

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Discrimination

Ability to distinguish between similar but distinct stimuli

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Little Albert Case

1 Complex can be conditioned
2 Emotions can be conditioned
3 Humans can be conditioned

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Rescorla-Wagner Model

Conditioning works better with unfamiliar CS because there aren't expectations attached yet

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Thompson

Eyeblinking conditioning of the cerebellum

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Biological Preparedness

Propensity for learning particular kinds of associations over others

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Operant Conditioning

Consequences of organism's behaviour determine whether it will be repeated in the future

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Thorndike

Instrumental behaviours

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Law of Effect

Behaviours that are followed by a satisfying state of affairs tend to be repeated and those that produce an unpleasant state of affairs are less likely to be repeated

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Operant Behaviour

Behaviour with impact on environment

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Skinner Operant Conditioning Chamber

Allows a researcher to study the behaviour of small organisms in a controlled environment

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Reinforcer

Stimulus that increases likelihood of a behaviour

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Punisher

Stimulus that decreases likelihood of a behaviour

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Stimulus Control

Stimulus controls the behaviour

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Discriminative Stimulus

Stimulus that indicates a response will be reinforced

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Three-Term Contingency

In presence of discriminative stimulus, a response produces a reinforcer

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Interval Schedules

Time intervals between reinforcements

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Ratio Schedules

Ratio of responses to reinforcements

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Intermittent Reinforcement Effect

Operant behaviours that are maintained under intermittent reinforcement schedules resist extinction better

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Shaping

Learning that results from the reinforcement of successive steps to a final desired behaviour

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Tolman

Means-ends relationship; stimulus establishes a cognitive state (and not a direct response)

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Latent Learning

Something is learned, but is not manifested

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Cognitive Map

Mental representation of physical features of environment

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Pleasure Centers

Brain areas in limbic system associated with positive experiences

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Observational Learning

Learning by watching actions of others

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Diffusion Chain

Individuals initially learn a behaviour by observing another individual perform that behaviour, and then serve as a model for others

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Enculturation Hypothesis

Being raised in a human culture has a profound effect on the cognitive abilities of chimpanzees

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Mirror Neurons

Type of neurons which fire when you watch someone else perform the same action

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Implicit Learning

Learning independent of awareness of both process and products