Chapter 7 - Long-Term Memory: Encoding, Retrieval, and Consolidation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7 - Long-Term Memory: Encoding, Retrieval, and Consolidation Deck (29):
1

encoding

the process of acquiring information and transferring it into LTM.

2

retrieval

the process of transferring information from LTM into working memory.

3

maintenance rehearsal

rehearsal that involves repetition without any consideration of meaning or making connections to other information.

4

elaborative rehearsal

rehearsal that involves thinking about the meaning of an item to be remembered or making connections between that item and prior knowledge.

5

levels of processing theory

a theory that states that memory depends on the depth of processing that an item receives.

6

who proposed the levels of processing theory?

Fergus Craik and Robert Lockhart

7

depth of processing

distinguishes between shallow processing and deep processing.

8

shallow processing

little attention to meaning.

EX: repeated a number over and over again

OR

EX: focusing on a words physical features such as font instead of the meaning of the word.

9

paired-associate learning

a list of word pairs are presented

10

self-reference effect

memory for a word is improved by relating the word to one's self.

11

generation effect

memory for material is better when a person generates the material herself, rather than passively receiving it.

12

retrieval cue

a word or other stimulus that helps a person remember information stored in memory.

13

testing effect

enhanced performance on a memory test caused by being tested on the material to be remembered.

14

free recall

a subject is asked to recall stimuli.

15

cued recall

the subject is presented with retrieval practice cues to aid in recall of the previously experienced stimuli.

16

encoding specificity

states that we encode information along with its context.

17

state-dependent learning

learning that is associated with a particular internal state, such as mood or state of awareness.

18

transfer-appropriate processing

when the type of task that occurs during encoding matches the type of task that occurs during retrieval.

19

consolidation

the process that transforms new memories from a fragile state, in which they can be disrupted, to a more permanent state, in which they are resistant to disruption.

20

synaptic consolidation

takes place over a few minutes or hours, involves structural changes at synapses.

21

systems consolidation

takes place over months or even years, involves the gradual reorganization of neural circuits within the bran.

22

long-term potential (LTP)

enhanced firing of neurons after repeated stimulation

23

standard model of consolidation

proposes that incoming information activates a number of areas in the cortex.

24

reactivation

a process in which the hippocampus replays the neural activity associated with a memory.

25

retrograde amnesia

loss of memory for events that occurred before the injury, this can extend back minutes, hours, or even years.

26

graded amnesia

when amnesia is most severe for events that happened just before the injury and become sell severe for easier events.

27

multiple trace model of consolidation

the hippocampus is involved in retrieval of episodic memories, even if they originated long ago.

28

reconsolidation

when a memory is retrieved, it becomes fragile as it was when it was originally formed, and that when it is in this fragile state, it needs to be consolidated again.

29

spacing effect

short study sessions