Flashcards in Chapter 7 - Long-Term Memory: Encoding, Retrieval, and Consolidation Deck (29):
the process of acquiring information and transferring it into LTM.
the process of transferring information from LTM into working memory.
rehearsal that involves repetition without any consideration of meaning or making connections to other information.
rehearsal that involves thinking about the meaning of an item to be remembered or making connections between that item and prior knowledge.
levels of processing theory
a theory that states that memory depends on the depth of processing that an item receives.
who proposed the levels of processing theory?
Fergus Craik and Robert Lockhart
depth of processing
distinguishes between shallow processing and deep processing.
little attention to meaning.
EX: repeated a number over and over again
EX: focusing on a words physical features such as font instead of the meaning of the word.
a list of word pairs are presented
memory for a word is improved by relating the word to one's self.
memory for material is better when a person generates the material herself, rather than passively receiving it.
a word or other stimulus that helps a person remember information stored in memory.
enhanced performance on a memory test caused by being tested on the material to be remembered.
a subject is asked to recall stimuli.
the subject is presented with retrieval practice cues to aid in recall of the previously experienced stimuli.
states that we encode information along with its context.
learning that is associated with a particular internal state, such as mood or state of awareness.
when the type of task that occurs during encoding matches the type of task that occurs during retrieval.
the process that transforms new memories from a fragile state, in which they can be disrupted, to a more permanent state, in which they are resistant to disruption.
takes place over a few minutes or hours, involves structural changes at synapses.
takes place over months or even years, involves the gradual reorganization of neural circuits within the bran.
long-term potential (LTP)
enhanced firing of neurons after repeated stimulation
standard model of consolidation
proposes that incoming information activates a number of areas in the cortex.
a process in which the hippocampus replays the neural activity associated with a memory.
loss of memory for events that occurred before the injury, this can extend back minutes, hours, or even years.
when amnesia is most severe for events that happened just before the injury and become sell severe for easier events.
multiple trace model of consolidation
the hippocampus is involved in retrieval of episodic memories, even if they originated long ago.
when a memory is retrieved, it becomes fragile as it was when it was originally formed, and that when it is in this fragile state, it needs to be consolidated again.