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Flashcards in chapter 7 muscles Deck (82):
1

four organ systems that are essential for the proper functioning of the muscular system are the____, ____,____, and ____

1. Skeletal 2. Nervous 3. Respiratory 4. Circulatory

2

The organ system that transmits impulses for contraction to muscles is the ____ system

Nervous

3

The organ that carries carbon dioxide away from contracting muscles is the ____ system

Circulatory

4

The organ system that is moved by muscles is the_____ system

Skeletal

5

The organ system that ensures adequate oxygen intake for muscles is the _____ system

Respiratory

6

Muscles are attached to bones by ____, which are made of _______ tissue

Fibrous connective

7

The fibers of a tendon merge with the _____ of muscle and the ____ of a bone

1. Fascia 2. Periosteum

8

The more stationary attachment of a muscle to a bone is called the ____

Orgin

9

The more movable attachment of a muscle to a bone is called the _____

Insertion

10

Muscles with opposite functions are called _______

Antagonisticmuscles

11

Muscles with the same or similar function are called _____

Synergistic muscles

12

When a muscles contracts, its specific action is to ___

Pull

13

Muscles that move the forearm must cross the _____ joint

Elbow

14

Muscles that move the lower leg must cross the ____

Knee

15

The state of slight contraction present in healthy muscles is called ______

Muscle tone

16

The state of slight contraction present in healthy muscles is called ____, and depends on ______

1. Muscle tone 2. Nerve impulses

17

About 25% of the body's heat at rest is produced by the _______ of the skeletal muscles

Muscle tone

18

Exercise that involves contraction with movement is called _____

isotonic

19

Exercise that involves contraction without movement is called _____

Isometric

20

Having a mental picture of where our muscles are is called____

Muscle sense

21

The sensory receptors in muscles are called _____ receptors, and their information is essential for ______

1. Stretch 2. Muscle sense

22

The contraction of skeletal muscles is initiated by the ____ lobes of the ______

1. Frontal 2. Cerebrum

23

The _____ of the brain coordinates the action of skeletal muscles

Cerebellum

24

Conscious muscle sense is a function of the ____ lobes of the ____

1. Parietal 2 Cerebrum

25

The integration of unconscious muscle sense is a function of the ______

Cerebellum

26

The direct energy source for muscle contraction is _____

ATP

27

Two indirect energy sources for muscles contraction are ____ and _____

1. Glycogen 2. Creatin phosphate

28

The most abundant energy source atin for muscle contraction is ____

Glycogen

29

In muscles, the waste product creatinine comes from _____, and is excreted by the ____

1. Creatinine Phosphate 2. Kidney

30

The simple reaction of cell respiration is:

Glucose+O2-> CO2+H2O+heat+ATP

31

In cell respiration, the waste product is _____

Carbon dioxide

32

In cell respiration, the ___ produced is used for muscle contraction

ATP

33

In cell respiration, the _____ produced contributes to body tempature

Heat

34

In muscles, oxygen is stored by _____

Myoglobin

35

The iron-containing protein in muscles is _____, and its function is to _____

1. Myoglobin 2. Store oxygen

36

Lactic acid is produced in muscles that lack_____, and it contributes to _____

1. Oxygen 2. Muscle fatigue

37

When oxygen is not present in contracting muscles, ______is formed that contributes to ____

1. Latic acid 2. Fatigue (muscles)

38

In the neuromuscular junction the ___ is the end of the motor neuron

Axon Terminal

39

In the neuromuscular junction, the _____ is the space.

Synapse

40

In the neuromuscular junction, the ______ is the membrane of the muscle fiber

Sarcolemma

41

In the neuromuscular junction, acetylcholine is contained within the ____

Axon terminal

42

The term oxygen debt refers to lack of oxygen during the process of ____

Cell respiration

43

In the neuromuscular junction, cholinesterase is contained with in the _____

Sarcolemma

44

In the neuromuscular junction, the impulse is transmitted from the motor neuron by _____ to the _____

1. Acetycholine 2. Muscle fiber

45

In the neuromuscular junction, acetylcholine is inactivated by ____

Cholinesterase

46

The units of contraction within a muscle fiber are called

Sarcomeis

47

Within a muscle fiber, the sarcoplasmic reticulum contains ____

calcium ions

48

Within a sarcomere, the contracting proteins are ____ and ____

1. Myosin 2. Actin

49

During polarization, the muscle fiber has a ___ charge outside the membrane and a ___ charge inside

1. Positive 2. Negative

50

During polarization, ___ ions are abundant outside the muscle fiber and ____ ions are abundant inside

1. Sodium 2. Potassium

51

During depolarization of a muscle fiber, _____ ions rush __ the cell

1. Sodium 2. into

52

During depolarization of a muscle fiber, there is a _____ charge outside the membrane and a ____ charge inside.

1. Negative 2. Positive

53

During repolarization of a muscle fiber, ___ ions rush ___ the cell

1. Potassium 2. Out of

54

Depolarization of a muscle fiber is stimulated by ___ that allows the entry of ___ ions

1. Acetycholine 2. Sodium

55

In the sliding filament mechanism, ____ filaments pull ____ filaments toward the center of the sarcomere

1. Myosin 2. Actin

56

In the sliding filament mechanism, the inhibiting proteins are ____ and ____

1. Troponinm 2. Troponmyosin

57

In the sliding filament mechanism, the inhibiting proteins are shifted out of the way by________

Calcium ions

58

During exercise, there is more blood within muscles because of _____ within the muscles

Vadodilation

59

During exercise, more blood will be circulated to muscles because of increased_____

Heart rate

60

During exercise, excess heat is given off as _____ increases

Sweating

61

The muscle around the eye that closes the eye is the ____

orbiiculcubris Oculi

62

The muscle around the mouth that puckers the lips is the ____

Orbicularis Oris

63

The musle attached to the mandible that raises the lower jaw is the _____

Masseter

64

The muscle on the shoulder that abducts the arm is the ____

Deltoid

65

The muscle on the front of the arm that flexes the forearm is the _______

Biceps Bracii

66

The muscle on the back of the arm that extends the forearm is the ____

Triceps Bracii

67

The muscle on the upper back that raises or lowers the shoulder is the ____

Trapezius

68

The muscle on the chest that flexes and adducts the arm is the ____

Pectors major

69

The muscle on the back of the trunk that extends and adducts the arm is the _____

Latissimus

70

The muscles on the ventral side of the trunk that flexes the vertebral column is the_______

Retus abdominus

71

The muscle on the buttocks that extends the thigh is the _____

Gluteus Maximus

72

The muscle in the inguinal area that flexes the thigh is the ___

iliopsoas

73

The muscle group on the front of the thigh that flexes the thigh is the ____

Quadriceps

74

The muscle group on the back of the thifh that extends the thigh is the _______

Hamstring group

75

The muscle on the lateral side of the hip that abducts the thigh is the ___

Gluteus Medius

76

The muscle on the front of the thigh that flexes the thigh and lower leg is the ____

Sartorius

77

The muscle group on the medial side of the thigh that adducts the thigh is the _____

Adductor group

78

The muscle on the front of the lower leg that dorsiflexes the foot is the _____

Tibialis anterior

79

The muscle on the back of the lower leg that plantar flexes the foot is the______

Gastrocnemius

80

A synergist to the gastrocnemius is the _____

Soleus

81

An antagonist to the gastrocnemius is the ____

Tibialis anterior

82

An antagonist to the gastronemius is the _____, because it _______

1. Tibialis anterior 2. Doris flexes the foot