Chapter 7 Psychology 175.102 Flashcards Preview

175.102 Psychology as a Natural Science > Chapter 7 Psychology 175.102 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 7 Psychology 175.102 Deck (38):
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Sensory representations

Information stored in a sensory mode, such as the sound of a dog barking or the image of the city skyline.

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Verbal representations

Information stored in words

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Information processing

Stimulus
Sensory registers
Short-term memory (STM)
Long-term memory (LTM)

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Sensory registers

Hold information about the perceived stimulus for approximately half a second after the stimulus disappears, allowing a mental representation of it to remain in memory briefly for further processing.

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Short-term memory

And then we store that holds a small amount of information in consciousness for roughly 20 to 30 seconds, unless the person makes a deliberate effort to maintain it longer by repeating it over and over.

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Rehearsal

Repeating information over and over in your mind

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Long-term memory

Holds important information, representations of facts, images, thoughts, feelings, skills and experiences may reside for as long as a lifetime.

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Serial position effect

A tendency to remember information towards the beginning and end of the list rather than in the middle.

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Models in long-term memory

Discrete but interdependent processing units responsible for different kinds of remembering.

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Working memory

Refers to the temporary storage and processing of information that can be used to solve problems, respond to environmental demands or achieve goals.

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Declarative memory

Memory for facts and events, much of which can be stated or declared.

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Procedural memory

Refers to 'how to' knowledge of procedures or skills.

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Semantic memory

Refers to general world knowledge or facts, such as the knowledge that winters are cold.

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Generic memory

A new term for semantic memory

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Episodic memory

Consists of memories of particular events, rather than general knowledge. Episodic memory allows people to travel mentally through time, to remember thoughts and feelings from the recent or distant past, or to imagine the future.

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Explicit memory

Conscious recollection, such as memorising wordlists, nonsense syllables or connections between pairs of words and then being asked to recall them.

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Implicit memory

Memory that is expressed in behaviour but does not require conscious recollection, such as tying shoelace.

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Recall

Recall is a spontaneous conscious recollection of information from long term memory

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Recognition

Recognition refers to the explicit sense or recollection that something currently perceived has been previously encountered or learned.

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Everyday memory

Everyday memory refers to memory as it occurs in daily life.

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Prospective memory

Memory for things that need to be done in the future.

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Retrospective memory

Memories of things from the past

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Encoding

For information to be retrievable from memory, it must be encoded, or cast into a representational form, or code, they can be readily accessed.

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Retrieval cues

Stimuli or thoughts that can be used to facilitate recollection

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Mnemonic devices

Systematic strategies for remembering information

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Method of Loci

Uses visual imagery as a memory aid

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Networks of Association

Clusters of interconnected information

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Node

Each individual piece of information along a network.

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Spreading activation theory

According to this activating one node in a network triggers activation in closely related nodes.

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Schemas

Schemas are patterns of thought, or organised knowledge structures, get render the environment relatively predictable.

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Flashbulb memories

Vivid memories of exciting or highly consequential events

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Decay theory

Explains forgetting as a result of a fading memory trace

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Interference theory

The intrusion of similar memories of each other, as when students confused two theories they learned around the same time or two similar sounding words in a foreign language.

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Proactive interference

Refers to the interference of previously stored memories with the retrieval of new information, is when a person calls a romantic partner by the name of an old one.

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Retroactive interference

New information interferes with retrieval of old information, as when people have difficulty recalling phone number from past residences.

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Motivated forgetting

Forgetting for a reason

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Anterograde amnesia

Involves the inability to retain new memories

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Retrograde amnesia

Involves losing memories from a period before the time that person's brain was damaged