Flashcards in Chapter 7 Psychology 175.102 Deck (38):
Information stored in a sensory mode, such as the sound of a dog barking or the image of the city skyline.
Information stored in words
Short-term memory (STM)
Long-term memory (LTM)
Hold information about the perceived stimulus for approximately half a second after the stimulus disappears, allowing a mental representation of it to remain in memory briefly for further processing.
And then we store that holds a small amount of information in consciousness for roughly 20 to 30 seconds, unless the person makes a deliberate effort to maintain it longer by repeating it over and over.
Repeating information over and over in your mind
Holds important information, representations of facts, images, thoughts, feelings, skills and experiences may reside for as long as a lifetime.
Serial position effect
A tendency to remember information towards the beginning and end of the list rather than in the middle.
Models in long-term memory
Discrete but interdependent processing units responsible for different kinds of remembering.
Refers to the temporary storage and processing of information that can be used to solve problems, respond to environmental demands or achieve goals.
Memory for facts and events, much of which can be stated or declared.
Refers to 'how to' knowledge of procedures or skills.
Refers to general world knowledge or facts, such as the knowledge that winters are cold.
A new term for semantic memory
Consists of memories of particular events, rather than general knowledge. Episodic memory allows people to travel mentally through time, to remember thoughts and feelings from the recent or distant past, or to imagine the future.
Conscious recollection, such as memorising wordlists, nonsense syllables or connections between pairs of words and then being asked to recall them.
Memory that is expressed in behaviour but does not require conscious recollection, such as tying shoelace.
Recall is a spontaneous conscious recollection of information from long term memory
Recognition refers to the explicit sense or recollection that something currently perceived has been previously encountered or learned.
Everyday memory refers to memory as it occurs in daily life.
Memory for things that need to be done in the future.
Memories of things from the past
For information to be retrievable from memory, it must be encoded, or cast into a representational form, or code, they can be readily accessed.
Stimuli or thoughts that can be used to facilitate recollection
Systematic strategies for remembering information
Method of Loci
Uses visual imagery as a memory aid
Networks of Association
Clusters of interconnected information
Each individual piece of information along a network.
Spreading activation theory
According to this activating one node in a network triggers activation in closely related nodes.
Schemas are patterns of thought, or organised knowledge structures, get render the environment relatively predictable.
Vivid memories of exciting or highly consequential events
Explains forgetting as a result of a fading memory trace
The intrusion of similar memories of each other, as when students confused two theories they learned around the same time or two similar sounding words in a foreign language.
Refers to the interference of previously stored memories with the retrieval of new information, is when a person calls a romantic partner by the name of an old one.
New information interferes with retrieval of old information, as when people have difficulty recalling phone number from past residences.
Forgetting for a reason
Involves the inability to retain new memories