Chapter 7 The Respiratory System A&P Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7 The Respiratory System A&P Deck (76):
1

supplies the blood with oxygen for transportation to the cells in all parts of the body

respiratory system

2

consists of the nose, mouth, pharynx, epiglottis, larynx, and trachea

upper respiratory tract

3

consists of the bronchial tree and lungs

lower respiratory tract

4

interior portion of the nose

nasal cavity

5

are the external openings of the nose

nostrils

6

is a wall of cartilage that divides the nose into two equal sections

nasal septum

7

is a wall that separates two chambers

septum

8

the thin hairs located just inside the nostrils, filter incoming air to remove debris

cilia

9

line the nose. specialized tissue also line the digestive, reproductive, and urinary systems as well as other parts of the respiratory system

mucous membranes

10

is a slippery secretion produced by the mucous membrane that protects and lubricates these tissues

mucus

11

are nerve endings that act as the receptors for the sense of smell

olfactory receptors

12

are part of the lymphatic system. protect the body from infection coming through the nose or the mouth

tonsils and adenoids

13

which are air-filled cavities lined with mucous membrane, are located in the bone of the skull

paranasal sinus

14

can be a sac or cavity in any organ or tissue

sinus

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are located in the frontal bone just above the eyebrows

frontal sinuses

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are located in the sphenoid bone behind the eye under the pituitary gland, are close to the optic nerves, and an infection here can damage vision

sphenoid sinuses

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which are the largest of the paranasal sinuses, are located in the maxillary bones under the eyes

maxillary sinuses

18

are located in the ethmoid bones between the nose and the eyes, are irregularly shaped air cells that are separated from the orbital cavity by only a thin layer of bone

ethmoid sinuses

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is commonly known as the throat, receives the air after it passes through the nose or mouth as well as food

pharynx

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is the first division of the pharynx, is posterior to the nasal cavity and continues downward to behind the mouth. only used by the respiratory system

nasopharynx

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is the second division of the pharynx, is the portion that is visible when looking into the mouth. shared by the respiratory and digestive systems

oropharynx

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is the third division of the pharynx, is also shared by both respiratory and digestive systems (primarily digestive system function)

laryngopharynx

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also known as the voice box, is a triangular chamber located between the pharynx and the trachea

larynx

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is the largest, and when enlarged it projects from the front of the throat and is commonly known as the Adam's apple

thyroid cartilage

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is a lid-like structure located at the base of the tongue, swings downward and closes off the laryngopharynx so that food does not enter the trachea and the lungs

epiglottis

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is to transport air to and from the lungs. this tube, which is commonly known as the windpipe, is located directly in front of the esophagus

trachea

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are two large tubes, also known as primary bronchi, which branch out from the trachea and convey air into the two lungs

bronchi

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each primary bronchus divides and subdivides into increasingly smaller structures, which are the smallest branches of the bronchi

bronchioles

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also known as air sacs, are the very small grape-like clusters found at the end of each bronchiole. where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place

alveoli

30

means relating to or affecting the lungs

pulmonary

31

detergent-like substance, which reduces the surface tension of the fluid in the lungs

surfactant

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are the essential organs of respiration, are divided into lobes

lungs

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is a subdivision or part of an organ

lobe

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is the larger and has three lobes: the upper, middle, and lower (or superior, middle, and inferior)

right lung

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has only two lobes, the upper and lower, due to space restrictions because the heart is located on that side of the body

left lung

36

is the middle section of the chest cavity and is located between the lungs

mediastinum

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is a thin, moist, and slippery membrane that covers the outer surface of the lungs and lines the inner surface of the thoracic cavity

pleura

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is the outer layer of pleura. lines the walls of the thoracic cavity

parietal pleura

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is the inner layer of pleura that covers each lung, is attached directly to the lungs

visceral pleura

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is the thin fluid-filled space between the parietal and visceral pleural membranes

pleural cavity

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is a dome-shaped sheet of muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdomen

diaphragm

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stimulates the diaphragm and causes it to contract

phrenic nerves

43

or breathing, is the exchange of oxygen for carbon dioxide that is essential to life

respiration

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is the act of taking in air as the diaphragm contracts and pulls downward

inhalation

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is the act of breathing out. diaphragm relaxes, it moves upward

exhalation

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is the act of bringing air in and out of the lungs from the outside environment and in the process, exchanging oxygen for carbon dioxide

external respiration

47

is the exchange of gases within the cells of the blood and tissues

internal respiration (cellular respiration)

48

known as an ENT (ear, nose, throat), is a physician with specialized training in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and disorders of the head and neck

otolaryngologist

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is a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the respiratory system

pulmonologist

50

performs operations on the organs inside the thorax, or chest, including the heart, lungs, and esophagus

thoracic surgeon

51

is the narrowing of the airway that develops after 5 to 15 minutes of physical exertion

exercise-induced asthma

52

is a therapeutic technique to remove excess mucus from the lungs

chest percussion

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is a condition that can be brought on by the decreased oxygen in the air at higher altitudes, usually above 8,000 feet

altitude hypoxia (altitude sickness)

54

is a state of asphyxia or suffocation. oxygen levels in the blood drop quickly, carbon dioxide levels rise, and unless the patient's breathing is restored within a few minutes, death or serious brain damage follows

asphyxiation

55

is an important vital sign. count of the number of breaths

respiratory rate

56

such as rale, rhonchi, and stridor provide information about the condition of the lungs

respiratory sounds

57

is a flexible, fiber-optic device that is passed through the nose or mouth and down the airways

bronchoscope

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is a small tube that divides into two nasal prongs

nasal cannula

59

allows the exhaled breath to be partially reused, delivering up to 60% oxygen

rebreather mask

60

allows higher levels of oxygen to be added to the air taken in by the patient

non-rebreather mask

61

or bag valve mask, is an emergency resuscitator used to assist ventilation

ambu bag (bag valve mask)

62

is the escape of fluid from blood or lymphatic vessels into the tissues or into a body cavity

effusion

63

is a dangerous form of tuberculosis because the germs have become resistant to the effect of the primary TB drugs

multidrug-resistant tuberculosis

64

is lobar pneumonia involving both lungs and is usually a form of bacterial pneumonia

double pneumonia

65

is the only form of pneumonia that can be prevented through vaccination

pneumococcal pneumonia*

66

describes abnormal changes in the rate or depth of breathing

breathing disorders

67

is a simpler version of this test in which the larynx is viewed by shining a light on an angled mirror held at the back of the soft palate

indirect laryngoscopy

68

is a procedure in which a sample of mucus is coughed up from the lungs and then examined under a microscope to detect cancer cells

sputum cytology

69

is performed using an instrument with several small prongs called tines

tuberculin tine test

70

such as inhaled corticosteroids, are long-acting medications taken daily to prevent attacks

controller medicines

71

are taken at the first sign of an attack to dilate the airways and make breathing easier

quick-relief or rescue medicines

72

is the insertion of a tube, usually for the passage of air or fluids

intubation

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means a surgically created opening on a body surface

stoma

74

is a harsh, high-pitched sound caused by a blockage present when breathing in

stridor

75

means sudden or spasm-like

paroxysmal

76

is a systemic bacterial infection in the bloodstream

sepsis

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