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Flashcards in chapter 8 Deck (35):
1

Piaget’s theory of cognitive development

Sensorimotor (0-2 years)
Preoperational (2-7 years)
Concrete operational (7-11/12 years)
Formal operational (11/12- beyond)

2

Sensorimotor (0-2 years)

infants experience the world through their senses, actions and body movement. At the end of this stage toddlers develop the concept of object permanence and can mentally represent objects in their absence

3

Preoperational (2-7 years)

children are able to represent objects and events mentally with words and images. They can engage in imaginary play, using one object to represent another. Their thinking is egocentric (they fail to consider the perspective of others)

4

Concrete operational (7-11/12 years)

children at this stage become able to think logically in concrete situations. They acquire the concepts of conservation and reversibility, can order objects in series and can classify them according to multiple dimensions.

5

Formal operational (11/12- beyond)

at this stage adolescents learn ti think logically in abstract situations, learn to test hypotheses systematically, and become interested un the world of ideas. Not all people attain full formal operational thinking.

6

Accommodation

the process by which existing schemes are modified and new schemes are created to incorporate new objects, events, experiences, or information

7

Assimilation

the process by which new objects, events, experiences, or information is incorporated into existing schemes

8

Early formal operations stage thinking

personal fable
naïve idealism

9

Personal fable

Exaggerated sense of personal uniqueness and indestructibility

10

Naïve idealism

Type of thought in which adolescents construct ideal solutions for problems

11

Vygotosky’s private speech

Talking to yourself is a key component to cognitive development children specific the components for a problem and verbalize steps to help work through tasks

12

Preconventional

lowest level of moral development, moral reasoning is based on the physical consequenses of an act; "right" is whatever avoids punishment or gains a reward

13

Conventional

second level of moral development, right and wrong are based on the internalized standards of others; "right" is whatever helps or is approved of by others, or whatever is consistent with laws of society

14

Postconventional

highest level of moral development, moral reasoning involves weighing moral alternatives; "right" is whatever furthers basic human rights

15

Erikson’s lifespan approach

1. Trust/ attachment
2. Shame or doubt may result
3. Pretend play
4. Elementary school years
5. Adolescents must integrate- must make the transition from childhood to adulthood, establish identity, develop a sense of self, and consider a future occupational identity.
6. Primary adult goal: get and give care- must develop intimacy, the ability to share with, care for, and commit themselves to another person. Avoiding intimacy brings sense of isolation and loneliness
7. Middle age- productive work
8. Old age involves looking back on life

16

Three periods of prenatal development

• Period of zygote- 0-2 weeks
• Period of embryo- 3-8 weeks
• Period of fetus- 9 weeks- birth

17

Two trends of motor development

Cephalo-caudal
Proximo-distal

18

Cephalo-caudal

"head to tail"

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Proximo-distal

"near to far"

20

Styles of temperament

Easy- relaxed (about 40%)
Difficult- moody (about 10%)
Slow-to-warm-up= shy (about 15%)`

21

Harlow’s research with rhesus monkeys

Chose cloth because of "contact comfort"
Also, both mother and peers are necessary
Humans infants need interaction with responsive primary care giver
Attachment is demonstrated by the "social smile", stranger and separation anxiety

22

Ainsworth’s patterns of attachment

Securely- 65%- seek mother
Avoidant- 20%- ignore mother
Resistant- 10%-insecure, upset
Disorganized- 5%- disoriented

23

Stanger anxiety

Being at around 6 months
Peaks at 1 year, then declines
Doesn’t tend to occur to other children
Greatest in unfamiliar situations

24

Separation anxiety

Begins at around 8 months
Peaks at 12-18 months, then declines
Found in all cultures
Enhances survival chances

25

Stages or phases of language development

Cooing (2-3 months)- reaptively uttering souchs "ah" "oo"
Babbling (4-6 months)- vocalization of basic speech sounds
8 months- babies being to focus attention on those speech sounds of common to the language spoken around them and on the rhythm and intonation of language
1 year- the babbling stage gives way to the one word stage
13-18 months- child markedly increase their vocabulary
2 years- know about 270 words

26

Overextension

the act of using a word on the basis of some shared feature, to apply a broader range of objects than appropriate

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Underextention

restricting the use of a word to only a few, rather than to all, members of a class of objects

28

Baumrind’s three parenting styles

Authoritarian
Authoritative
Permissive

29

Authoritarian

parents who make arbitrary rules, expect unquestioned obedience from their children, punish transgressions, and value obedience to authority

30

Authoritative

parents who set high but realistic standards, reasons with the child, enforce limits, and encourage open communication and independence

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Permissive

parents who make few rules or demands and allow children to make their own decisions and control their own behavior

32

Crystallized intelligence

aspects of intelligence involving verbal ability and accumulated knowledge, which tend to increase over life span

33

Fluid intelligence

aspects of intelligence involving abstract reasoning and mental flexibility, which peak in the early 20s and decline slowly as people age

34

Successful aging

Maintaining one's physical health, mental abilities, social competence, and overall satisfaction with life as ones gets older

35

Kubler-Ross’ research on death & dying

1. Denial- shock and disbelife
2. Anger- anger, resentment, and envy of those who are young and healthy
3. Bargaining- person attempts to postpone death in return for a promise of "good behavior"
4. Depression- brings great sense of loss and may take two forms 1) depression of past losses 2) depression over pending losses
Acceptance- stop struggling against death and contemplate its coming without fear