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Flashcards in Chapter 8 Deck (27):
1

the form of cellular respiration found in some prokaryotes in which a molecule other than oxygen is used in the ATP-producing process

anaerobic respiration

2

the partial or full loss of electrons from a substance

oxidation

3

substance-the electron donor-from which the electrons are lost during oxidation

oxidized

4

the partial or full gain of electrons to a substance

reduction

5

substance-the electron acceptor-that gains electrons during reduction

reduced

6

coupled oxidation-reduction reaction in which electrons are removed from a donor molecule and simultaneously added to an acceptor molecule

redox reactions

7

a coenzyme that serves as an electron carrier

nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)

8

stage of cellular respiration in which sugars such as glucose are partially oxidized and broken down into smaller molecules

glycolysis

9

an enzymecatalyzed reaction that transfers a phosphate group from a substrate to ADP

substrate-level phosphorylation

10

stage of cellular respiration in which the threecarbon molecules pyruvate is converted into a 2-carbon acetyl group that is completely oxidized to carbon dioxide

pyruvate oxidation

11

series of reactions in which acetyl groups are oxidized completely to carbon dioxide and some ATP molecules are synthesized

citric acid cycle

12

synthesis of ATP in which ATP synthase uses an H+ gradient built by the electron transfer system as the energy source to make the ATP

oxidative phosphorylation

13

stage of cellular respiration in which high-energy electrons produced from glycolysis, pyruvate oxidation, and the citric acid cycle are delivered to oxygen by a sequence of electron carriers

electron transfer system

14

a membrane-spanning protein complex that couples the energetically favorable transport of protons across a membrane to the synthesis of ATP

ATP synthase

15

series of reactions in which acetyl groups are oxidized completely to carbon dioxide and some ATP molecules are synthesized

citric acid cycle/ Krebs cycle/ tricarboxylic acid cycle

16

stage of cellular respiration in which the 3carbon molecule pyruvate is converted into a 2-carbon acetyl group that is completely oxidized to carbon dioxide

pyruvic acid oxidation

17

series of electron carriers that alternately pick up and release electrons ultimately transferring them to their final acceptor, oxygen

mitochondrial electron transfer system

18

protein with a heme prosthetic group that contains an iron atom

cytochromes

19

stored energy that contributes to ATP synthesis as well as to the cotransport of substances to and form mitochondria

proton-motive force

20

model proposing that mitochondrial electron transfer produces an H+ gradient and that the gradient powers ATP synthesis by ATP synthase

chemiosmotic hypothesis

21

process in which electrons carried by NADH are transferred to an organic acceptor molecule rather than to the electron transfer system

fermentation

22

reaction in which pyruvate is converted into lactate

lactate fermentation

23

reaction in which pyruvate is converted into ethyl alcohol and CO2 in a 2-step series that also converts NADH into NAD+

alcoholic fermentation

24

organism in which fermentation is he only source of ATP

strict anaerobes

25

an organism that can live in the presence or absence of oxygen using oxygen when it is present and living by fermentation under anaerobic conditions

facultative anaerobes

26

cell with an absolute requirement for oxygen to survive unable to live solely by fermentations

strict aerobes

27

the form of cellular respiration found in eukaryotes and many prokaryotes in which oxygen is a reactant in the ATP-producing process

aerobic respiration