Chapter 8 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8 Deck (37):
1

brainstorming

A method of spontaneously and
creatively generating as many ideas as possible

2

cohesiveness

The quality that causes the members of
the group to be attracted to the group and willing to
endure despite challenges

3

compromise

This conflict outcome—where both parties agree to give up something in order to reach a
decision—works if a win-win is not possible

4

conflict phase

The stage of a problem-solving discussion where the work of the group gets underway,and conflicts may occur any time

5

consensus

A group decision made when all group
members agree on a particular decision; may not be the preferred decision for all members but one that all members can live with

6

criteria

Standards or checklist that any possible solu-
tion must meet in order for it to be acceptable to the
group and be used to determine the best out of a list of possible solutions

7

driving forces

In force-field analysis,these are forces that are moving the group to make a certain decision
or to move in a particular direction

8

emergence phase

The stage in a problem-solving discussion where discussion turns from debating myriad
possibilities to honing in on a limited number of
ideas,and examining the advantages and disadvan-
tages of each

9

force-field analysis

A method used by groups to analyze the pros (impelling forces) and cons (restraining
forces) of a specific group idea,decision,desired
action or plan

10

group

A small number of people (usually 3–7) who have
multiple face-to-face meetings over an extended period
of time and who interact to achieve common goals

11

group decision making

Decisions made using a group of people when the following items are important or present:quality,acceptance by many,accuracy,complex task,or conflict

12

group diversity

Occurs when there are enough differences among group members to permit access to multiple perspectives yet sufficient similarity of values to
ensure commonality of goals

13

group norms

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14

group problem-solving process

A systematic process
involving six steps that when used cuts the chaos and allows a group to reach a decision faster and with less emotion

15

group roles

Categories of behaviors enacted by individuals in a group.Groups contain both formal rules (specified) and informal rules (developed over time)

16

groupthink

A dysfunctional condition that occurs when members of the group refrain from expressing
divergent viewpoints for fear of being sanctioned or because they like the group so much that they don’t want to risk causing the group any discomfort

17

hidden agenda

When a group member is more committed to personal goals than to the group’s goals but fails to make this position known

18

individual decision making

Decisions made by a single
individual when the following situations are present:fast decision needed,decisions are fairly simple,decisions affect few people,working with members is difficult

19

learning groups

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20

must criteria

Criteria that are absolutely necessary in
picking a solution.Any decision that does not meet all the must criteria will be eliminated without further discussion

21

nominal group technique

A method of generating ideas that assures equal participation from all
members

22

optimum group size

The ideal size for a group to be the most productive—five to seven people—is large enough to provide diversity of opinion but not large enough to inhibit full participation by all

23

orientation phase

The beginning phase in a problem-solving discussion where members work to become
comfortable with one another and to develop an
understanding of the task at hand

24

problem-solving groups

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25

question of conjecture

A way to phrase a problem that
asks what can be anticipated in the future

26

question of fact

A way to phrase a problem that is either non-controversial or controversial and seeks to
determine what the present situation is

27

question of policy

A way to phrase a problem that seeks
to determine what course of action should be taken

28

question of value

A way to phrase a problem that is
oriented toward evaluating what course of action is best or most worthy

29

reinforcement phase

The stage in a problem-solving discussion where members review the decision made
or the task accomplished,reassuring themselves that
they have achieved a desirable goal

30

restraining forces

In force-field analysis,these are the
forces that restrain the group from making the necessary changes or imposing restrictions on how they can accomplish their objectives

31

self-maintenance groups

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32

service-learning projects

A group that “integrates community service with academic study to enrich learning,teach civic responsibility,and strengthen
communities”

33

social loafing

The tendency of group members to slack
off,letting others carry the load.This is especially
prevalent in large groups and groups with low cohesiveness

34

team

Similar to a group but with closer cohesiveness and
cooperation;often used in the business environment

35

virtual team

A team that has members that are dispersed
by location so must collaborate via the Internet or other technologies to accomplish specific goals

36

vote

One way that decisions are made by group members

37

want criteria

Criteria that are desired but not essential.
Want criteria need to be rated or ranked in some
fashion.