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Flashcards in chapter 8 Deck (37):
1

concept

mental representation of an object, event or idea

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categories

larger groups of concepts based on their similarity to one another

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classical categorization

this theory claims that objects or events are categorized according to a certain set of rules or a specific set of features

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graded membership

observation that some concepts appear to make better category members than others

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prototypes

mental representations of an average category member

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semantic network

an interconnected set of nodes ( or concepts) and the links that join them to form a category

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linguistic relativity (whorfian hypothesis)

theory that the language we use determines how we understand the word

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algorithms

a slow, logical and step-by-step solution to a problem based on a set of rules

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heuristics

relying on past experience to make a quick and reasonable guess as to the problems solution

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mental set

cognitive obstacle that occurs when an individual attempts to apply a routine solution to what is actually a new type of problem

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functional fixedness

the tendency to treat objects as only serving one function

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representative heuristics

assumption that all members of a category share same feature

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availability heuristic

making judgements about the frequency with which events occur based on how easy it is for us to think of examples

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anchoring effect

occurs when an individual attempts to solve a problem involving numbers and uses previous knowledge to keep response within a limited range

15

belief perseverance

when an individual believes he or she has the solution to the problem or the correct answer for a question, and accepts only evidence that will confirm those beliefs

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confirmation bias

occurs when an individual searches for only evidence that will confirm his beliefs instead of evidence that might discomfort them

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two types of paradox of choice

-maximizes
-satisficers

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maximizes

thoroughly explore all the options and the pros and cons associated with the options to make the best choice

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satisficers

do very little research and simply choose the first option that fulfills some minimum set of criteria (happier with their choices)

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aphasia

any specific impairment in the ability to produce or comprehend language

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broca's area

an impairment in the ability to produce language through speech

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wernicke's aphasia

impairment in the ability to comprehend spoken language

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language

means of communication using spoken, written, or gestural symbols

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language productivity

basic unit of language permit an almost infinite amount of combinations

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phonemes

the smallest units of language, units of sound that we use to form words t/e/s/t

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morphemes

smallest meaningful units of language ex) plant /er

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semantics

the study of how people learn the meaning of words

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orthography

visual representation of words

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phonology

speech-based representation of words

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syntax

the rules that define the acceptable order of combining words into phrases and sentences (noun + verb)

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pragmatics

study of nonlinguistic elements of language use (not to be taken literally) ex) facial expression

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fast mapping

very young children appear to learn many words with only one single exposure

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naming explosion

learning many words very quickly, it's an explosion

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cross fostered

meaning ape was raised as a member of a family that was not of the same species

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over-generalization

child saying "i goed to the park" using rules in the wrong spot

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sensitive period

early period in our life, during which acquisition language occurs quite easily and naturally

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lexigrams

symbols used to speak (apes)