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Flashcards in Chapter 8 Deck (21):
1

Saltwater or marine life zones

oceans and their bays, estuaries, coastal
wetlands, shorelines, coral reefs, and mangrove forests

2

Freshwater life zones

lakes, rivers, streams, and inland wetlands

3

Plankton

An organism that is weakly swimming and free floating

4

Nekton

strongly swimming consumers such as fish, turtles, and whales

5

Benthos

consists of bottom-dwellers such as: oysters and sea stars

6

Decomposers

which break down organic compounds in the dead bodies and wastes of aquatic organisms into nutrients that aquatic primary
producers can use

7

Turbidity

cloudiness that can occur naturally, such
as from algal growth, or can result from disturbances such as clearing of land, which when it rains, causes silt to flow into bodies of water

8

Coastal zone

is the warm, nutrient-rich, shallow water that extends from the high-tide mark on land to the gently sloping, shallow edge of the continental
shelf (the submerged part of the continents)

9

Costal wetlands

coastal land areas covered with water all or part of the year—include river mouths, inlets, bays, sounds, coastal marshes (called salt marshes) in temperate zones, and mangrove forests

10

Intertidal zone

The area of shoreline between low and high
tides

11

Open sea

The sharp increase in water depth at the edge of the continental shelf separates the coastal zone from the vast volume of the ocean

12

Lakes

are large natural bodies of standing fresh-
water formed when precipitation, runoff, streams, rivers, and groundwater seepage fill depressions in the earth’s surface

13

Oligotrophic lakes

Lakes that have a small supply of plant nutrients

14

Eutrophic lakes

A lake with a large supply of nutrients needed by producers

15

Cultural eutrophication

Human inputs of nutrients from the atmosphere and from nearby urban and agricultural areas can accelerate the eutrophication of lakes

16

Mesotrophic lakes

Many lakes fall somewhere between the two extremes of nutrient enrichment

17

Surface water

Precipitation that does not sink into the ground or evaporate

18

Runoff

when it flows into streams

19

Watershed or drainage basin

is the land area that delivers runoff, sediment, and dissolved substances to a stream

20

Inland wetlands

are lands located away from coastal
areas that are covered with freshwater all or part of the time—excluding lakes, reservoirs, and streams

21

Aquatic life zones

saltwater and freshwater portions of the
biosphere that can support life