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Flashcards in Chapter 8 Deck (76):
1

Cellular respiration is a continuation of __

Photosynthesis

2

In cellular respiration, glucose >> __

ATP

3

In cellular respiration, some energy is __

Lost in the form of heat

4

Where does cellular respiration occur?

Mitochondria

5

Cellular respiration coverts __ to __

Energy to ATP

6

The equation of cellular respiration

C6H12O6 + 6 O6 >> 6 CO2 + 6H2O + ATP

(Glucose + oxygen >> carbon dioxide + water + ATP)

7

Exchange of gases

Respiration

8

Exchanging gases with external environment

External respiration

9

O2 >> CO2 (cellular level, blood tissues)

Internal respiration

10

Energy requirement for humans

Production of ATP

11

__ of stuff we take in is for life sustaining activities

75%

12

We must take in __ a day for involuntary activities

2200 Kcal

13

Movement of electrons from one molecule to another

Redox reactions

14

In redox reactions, electrons move in the form of __

Hydrogen ions

15

In cellular respiration, glucose is __ and oxygen is __

Oxidized
Reduced

16

Key players in redox reactions

Dehydrogenase, NAD+, FAD

17

Strips H+ from organic molecules (glucose)

Dehydrogenase

18

When this is reduced it becomes __

NADH

19

Another electron shuttle, when reduced becomes FADH2

FAD

20

Coenzymes; enzymes who's function is to transport electrons

NAD+ and FAD

21

The four phases of cellular respiration

Glycolysis
Prep reaction
Krebs cycle
Oxidation phosphorylation

22

takes glucose made in photosynthesis and and convert it into energy that our body can use (in the form of ATP)

Cellular respiration

23

__ breaks down glucose

Glycolysis

24

Glycolysis makes __

2 ATP

25

Glycolysis occurs in __

Cytoplasm

26

How glucose is broken down in glycolysis

Glucose (6C) >> 2 pyruvate (3C) = pyruvic acid

27

Prep reactions occur in __

Mitochondrial matrix

28

In prep reactions, pyruvate (3C) is converted into __

acetyl CoA (2C)

29

The extra C from pyruvate converting into acetyl CoA is __

Released as CO2 (exhale)

30

The Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle) occurs __

Mitochondrial matrix

31

Krebs cycle makes __

2 ATP

32

Minor method of ATP production

Substrate level phosphorylation

33

Krebs cycle uses __

Substrate level phosphorylation

34

Main function of Krebs cycle

Provide electrons for oxidation phosphorylation

35

Major method of ATP production

Oxidation phosphorylation

36

Oxidation phosphorylation is done through __

Electron transport chain

37

Oxidation phosphorylation produces __ ATP

26-28

38

Oxidation phosphorylation occurs in __

Mitochondrial cristae

39

The electrons of oxidation phosphorylation are provided by __

NADH and FADH2

40

Steps of cellular respiration

1. Glycolysis
2. Prep reactions
3. Krebs cycle
4. Oxidative phosphorylation

41

Glycolysis steps 1-5 are called

Energy investment phase

42

Steps 1-5 in glycolysis do what

Use energy in the form of 2 ATP and is used to split glucose

43

Glycolysis steps 6-10 is called __

Energy payoff phase

44

Steps 6-10 of glycolysis do what

Produce energy in the form of ATP to do cellular work

45

Steps 6-10 make what? And their waste product is what?

2 NADH and 4 ATP
Water

46

Net yield of glycolysis from one glucose molecule is __

2 pyruvates, 2 NADH, 2 ATP

47

ATP production of glycolysis is __

Substrate level phosphorylation

48

Glycolysis is a __ process

Anaerobic
(Doesn't require oxygen)

49

Krebs cycle inputs

2 (2C) acetyl groups
6 NAD+
2 FAD

50

Krebs cycle outputs

4 CO2
6 NADH
2 FADH2

51

Net yield for 1 glucose molecule in Krebs cycle

2 ATP
6 NADH
2 FADH2
4 CO2 as waste

52

NADH AND FADH2 carry __

Electron to final step of cellular respiration

53

Oxidative phosphorylation is the __ of cellular respiration

Final stage

54

Players of oxidative phosphorylation

NADH
FADH2
ETC
hydrogen ion gradient
ATP synthesis

55

Hydrogen gradient does what?

Drives the production of ATP

56

ATP synthase makes __

ATP

57

Oxygen is the __ and converts it to __

Final electron acceptor
Water

58

Steps of oxidative phosphorylation

1. NADH and FADH2 give you their electron to the ETC
2. Energy is being released in the form of hydrogen ions during the ETC reactions to the outside of the cristae
3. O2 accepts electrons, forming water
4. Concentration gradient (H+ concentration outside the cristae is greater than the H+ inside the cristae)
5. H+ go down concentration gradient, through the ATP synthase (this is called chemiosmosis)
6. Chemiomosis fuels ATP synthase to perform the reaction: ADP + P = ATP

59

Where does glycolysis take place?

Cytoplasm

60

Net yield of prep reaction

2 NADH
2 acetyl CoA

61

Prep reactions convert pyruvate to acetyl CoA in order to __

Enter Krebs cycle

62

Krebs cycle is __

Aerobic (needs oxygen)

63

ETC or Oxidative phosphorylation is __

Aerobic (needs O2)

64

Alternate pathway off of cellular respiration

Fermentation

65

Fermentation occurs in __

Cytoplasm

66

Fermentation produces __

Two ATP

67

When fermentation occurs in muscle cells the product is __, which is __

Lactate
Toxic to cells

68

Causes pain in messages: shin split, cramps

Lactate

69

Lactate is taken back to liver to produce __

Pyruvate

70

Process of fermentation (in muscle)

glycolysis >> pyruvate >>with O2>> Cellular respiration

Glycolysis>> pyruvate>> no O2>> fermentation >>muscle>> lactic acid (lactate)

71

Process of fermentation (of yeast)

Glycolysis >> pyruvate >>no O2>> fermentation >>yeast>> alcohol and CO2 as waste

72

Three organism types

Obligate anaerobes, facultative anaerobes, aerobes

73

Organisms that are poisoned by oxygen

Obligate anaerobes

74

Organisms that can live in either environment (O2 or no O2)

Facultative anaerobes

75

Facultative anaerobes can make __ through __

ATP
fermentation or oxidative phosphorylation

76

Organisms that require oxygen

Aerobes