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Flashcards in Chapter 8 Deck (27):


The intentional prevention of pregnancy during sexual intercourse


birth control

the device or practice that decreases the risk of conceiving


family planning

the conscious decision on when to conceive throughout the reproductive years


Informed consent—BRAIDED

B: benefits
R: risks
A: alternatives
I: inquiries and questions
D: decisions may change mind
E: explanations
D: documentation


Coitus interruptus

(withdrawal) - least effect method


Fertility awareness methods (FAMs)

Natural family planning
Only contraceptive practices acceptable to the Roman Catholic Church
Relies on avoidance of intercourse during fertile periods
FAMs combine charting menstrual cycle with abstinence or other contraceptive methods


FAM calendar method

count cycle days for 6 months


FAM standard days method

8-19 days are fertlie


FAM Symptoms-based methods

TwoDay method
Ovulation method
Basal body temperature (BBT) method
Symptothermal method


BBT method

take temp before get out of bed, temp decreases at oluvation go up .2 or .5 degrees Celsius


Ovulation method

ovulate cervical mucus


Symptothermal method

(2nd chart) does all methods


Biologic marker methods

Home predictor test kits for ovulation
The Marquette model


Spermicides and barrier methods

Popular also as a protective measure against spread of STIs
Chemical barriers may reduce the risk of some STIs but are not effective against cervical chlamydia and gonorrhea or HIV infection
Male and female condoms provide a mechanical barrier to STIs and HIV


Spermicides and barrier methods examples

Condoms, male
Vaginal sheath (female condom)
Diaphragm (doesnt protect you from STDs and HIV, only replaced every 2-3 unless whole,Toxic shock syndrome (TSS)
Cervical caps (covers cervix)
Contraceptive sponge


hormonal methods

over 30 types of birth control
people don't ovulate
alters pH of verival mucus, makes uterine lining hard for eggs to land in
don't protect you form STDs or HIV
have lighter periods
help with ache
can get ovarian cyst so put on birth control so don't get cyst
blood clotts
can cause or agitate gal bladder disease
can increase breast cancer
help with PMS
91 day seasonal - only like 4 months, seasonic - only 1 period once a year


hormonal methods combined

estrogen-progestin contraceptives (COCs)

Progestin-only contraception
-Oral progestins (minipill)
-transdermal patch - can be irritating to skin
-nevaring - leave in for 3 weeks then take out for 1 to have period
-Injectable progestins - Do not massage site after injection; depo - having decreased bone mineral density, no protection
- Implantable progestins - lasts up to 3 years, can have no period or bleeding


Emergency contraception

Used within 120 hours of unprotected intercourse
Three methods available in the U.S. - High doses of oral progestins, Levonorgestrel 2 doses High doses of COCs or estrogen, Insertion of copper IUD

plan B - in Tn if 17 or older can get w/in 72 hours, pharm can choose to sell it or not, prevents ovulation/ alters pH of mucus


Intrauterine devices

(IUD) - croipper (heavy bleeding) lasts for 10 years, failure less than 10%, can feel if its no inplace
merana - estrogen or progesterone in it, 5 years
can perferate uterus

Offer constant contraception
Small T-shaped device inserted into the uterine cavity
Medicated IUDs loaded with either copper or progestational agent
Offer no protection against STIs or HIV


sterilization female

Tubal occlusion
Transcervical sterilization
Tubal reconstruction

have to be 21 and wait 31 days after sign, better reversible if clipped, done in office, go into tube put spring in tube and scars then scare tissue closes it, takes several months


sterilization male

Tubal reconstruction (reanastomose) - sever vans defferans, can do with clips


breast feeding

Lactational amenorrhea method
can only go 6 hours between feedings to be considered birth control; can only go 6 months


future trends

Lower-dose COCs
Female barrier methods
Male hormonal methods



Purposeful interruption of pregnancy before 20 weeks of gestation
Elective - doesnt want to carry baby
Therapeutic - danger of moms life or something wrong with fetus


abortion during 1st trimester

Aspiration - suck it out
Medical abortion - take 3 kinds of medications, have to follow up with OB in 3-7 days if doesn't work than aspiration (Methotrexate and misoprostol, Mifepristone and misoprostol)


abortion during 2nd trimester

can do up to 20 wks, done in hospital, risk of bleeding, infection, damage to uterus


key points

Variety of contraception available with various effectiveness rates, advantages, and disadvantages
Women and their partners should choose the contraceptive method best suited for them
Effective contraceptives available through prescription and nonprescription
Variety of techniques available to enhance the effectiveness of periodic abstinence
Hormonal contraception includes both precoital and postcoital prevention