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Flashcards in Chapter 8 Deck (25):
1

What is denunciation?

One of the objectives of sentencing in Canada. Here, the goal is to inform the Canadian
public that we as a society view a particular act as wrong.

2

What is the fundamental principle of sentencing?

The fundamental principle of sentencing is supposed to guide judicial decision making when handing down sentences. It states that a sentence must be proportionate to the gravity of the offence and the responsibility of the offender.

3

What is general deterrence?

One of the objectives of sentencing in Canada. Here, the goal is to show Canadians what will happen to them if they commit a crime in the hope that this will decrease the likelihood that potential offenders in the community will offend in the future.

4

What is parole?

Allowing the offender to leave prison before the end of his or her prison term. Parole can either be on a temporary or full basis. Tyypically, there are a range of conditions atached to the parole (e.g. the offender must not leave the country). If the offender breaches any of these conditions, then he or she can be sent back to prison.

5

What is a reparation?

One of the objectives of sentencing in canada. Here, the goal is to repay society for what was lost during the commission of the crime (e.g., the offender will be made to pay back the value of what was stolen).

6

What is sentencing?

A sentence is the imposition of a legal sanction on persons convicted of an offence.

7

What is sentence disparity?

Sentencing disparity refers to variation in sentencing patterns due to the influence of factors that are not legally relevant to the case (i.e. extra-legal factors such as the judge's personality, philosophy, mood, etc.)

8

What are sentencing guidelines?

Sentencing guidelines refer to guidelines that are supposed to limit the degree of discretion that a judge has when decisng on appropriate sentences. In canada, thse often take the form of mandatory minimum sentences (e.g. in Canada, first degree murder has a mandatory minimum sentence of life imprisonment).

9

What is specific deterrence?

One of the objectives of sentencing in Canada. Here, the goal is to show offenders what happens to them if they commit a crime in thehope that this will decrease the likelihood that they will offend in the future.

10

What is effect size?

The effect size can range from +1.00 to -1.00 and indicates how efective a treatment program is. As an example, you may want to evaluate a new treatment program that is supposed to prevent re-offending. You compare the re-offending rate for kids who do not take part in the program (60%) to kids who do take part in the program (40%) and get an effect size equal to +0.20 (indicating that the program is somewhat effective at reducing re-offending rates).

11

What is the general responsivity principle?

A principle that states: Intervention should match the ability and learning style of the indiivdual offender.

12

What is the human services principle?

A principle that states: use effective human service over sanctioning whenever possible when intervening with offenders.

13

What is the need principle?

A principle that states: intervention strategies should target individual criminogenic needs (e.g., antisocial attitudes, ntisocial associates, antisocial personality, antisocial history).

14

What is a risk principle?

A principle that states: the offender's level of risk should match the level of intervention (e.g., high risk offenders = intensive interventio, low risk offenders = little or no intervention).

15

What is specific responsivity principle?

A principle that states: intervention should match specific features of the individual offender (e.g. age, ethnicity, gender, anxiety, motivational level, etc.)

16

____________ refers to a defendant's inability to assist or participate in aspects of his or her own trial on account of a mental disorder.

a. Actus reus
b. Mens rea
c. Unfit to stand trial
d. Dysthymia
e. Malfeasance

c. Unfit to stand trial

17

The Canadian Criminal Code specifies that court-ordered fitness assessments must be carried out by:

a. Police officers
b. Stenographers
c. Psychologists
d. Medical practitioners
e. Defence attorneys

d. Medical practitioners

18

According to your textbook, which fitness assessment tool is most likely to be useful in Canadian courts?

a. CAI
b. IFI
c. CST
d. MacCat-CA
e. FIT-R

e. FIT-R

19

A Canadian twelve-year-old defendant was found unfit to stand trial and remanded to a psychiatric facility. According to the Youth Criminal Justice Act, how often must the case be reviewed by the court?

a. Every six months
b. Every year
c. Every two years
d. every three years
e. Every five years

b. Every year

20

_______ are legal bodies mandated to oversee the care and disposition of defendants found unfit and/or not criminally responsible on account of a mental disorder.

a. Review boards
b. NCRMD panels
c. Assessment centres
d. Fitness boards
e. None of the above

a. Review boards

21

Bill C-30, enacted in 1992, changed the terminology for an insanity defence from NOT GUILTY BY REASON OF INSANITY to NCRMD. What does NCRMD stand for?

a. Not criminally receptive due to mental disease
b. Not criminally responsive on account of mental disorder
c. Not criminally responsible due to mental defect
d. Not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder
e. Not criminally responsive on account of mental disorganization

d. Not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder

22

Nancy was found to be NCRMD during her trial and a review board is examining Nancy's case. They have determined Nancy is not a threat to the community and has a very low-risk of reoffending. Which of the following is the review board likely to order?

a. Conditional sentence
b. Absolute discharge
c. A new trial
d. Detention in a psychiatric facility
e. None of the above

b. Absolute discharge

23

According to a study completed by a group of researchers in the United Kingdom (Phillips et al., 2005), what was the strongest predictor of reoffending in mentally disordered offenders?

a. demographics (age, race, gender, etc.)
b. Substance abuse
c. Mental disorder diagnosis
d. Number of previous offences
e. None of the above

e. Number of previous offences

24

An offender with a diagnosed mental illness commits a minor crime and is placed directly into a treatment program, rather than continuing through the court process. this option is called:

a. Dispersal
b. Diversion
c. Derision
d. Diurnal
e. Derivative

b. Diversion

25

Which of the following is a main objective of mental health courts, as described by your textbook? (pay attention to the underlined sections of the answers)

a. To divert accused who have been charged with a moderate/major criminal offence and offer them an alternative
b. To facilitate evaluation of a victim's fitness to stand trial
c. To ensure treatment for a defendant's mental disorders
d. To decrease the cycle mentally disordered offenders experience by becoming labelled with a diagnosis
e. All of the above are main objectives of mental health courts


c. To ensure treatment for a defendant's mental disorders