Flashcards in Chapter 8 Deck (21):
Adding an inert salt (KNO3) to a sparingly soluble salt will ____increase/decrease____ the solubility of the sparingly soluble salt.
Adding ions (in the form of KNO3) increases the __________ of the solution. This in turn increases the ______ of the ionic atmosphere.
The ionic atmosphere __________ the attraction between the Ca2+ and SO4^2-, thus ________ the solubility.
In a solution containing an inert salt, an ______ is surrounded by excess cations and a _______ is surrounded by excess anions.
The greater the __________ of a solution, the higher the charge in the ionic atmosphere
ionic strength (u)
___Increasing/Decreasing____ ionic strength promotes dissociation into ions.
_______ _______ is a measure of the total concentration of ions in solution
ionic strength (u)
What is the formula for ionic strength (u)?
1/2 [C1 Z1^2 + C2 Z2^2 + ......]
Concentrations of ions are _______ throughout a solution.
The __________ ________ measures the deviation of behavior from ideality.
activity coefficient (y)
As ionic strength, ion charge and ion size increases, the activity coefficient ___________.
The activity coefficient approaches unity as the ionic strength approaches _____.
As the magnitude of the charge of the ion increases, the departure of its activity coefficient from unity _______.
increases (careful "departure from unity")
The ______ the ion size, the more important activity effects become.
Neutral molecule do NOT have an ________ ________ because they don't have a charge.
Activity coefficients are unity when the ionic strength is less than _____.
The activity of a neutral molecule will be assumed to be equal to its __________.
When we measure pH with a pH meter, we are attempting to measure the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion ______, NOT its concentration.
The ______ ______ is an algebraic statement of electroneutrality: The sum of the positive charges in solution equals the sum of the negative charges in solution.
Mass balance is also called the ________ _______, and is a statement of the conservation of matter.