Chapter 8 - Attitude Change and Interactive Communications Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8 - Attitude Change and Interactive Communications Deck (56):

With marketing, what is "Persuasion"?

The effectiveness of the marketing communications to change attitudes


What are 6 things that influence people to change their minds or comply?

1. Reciprocity
2. Authority
3. Liking
4. Scarcity
5. Consistency
6. Consensus


What are the 4 tactical communication options?

1. Who will be the source of the message?
2. How should the message be constructed
3. What media will transmit message
4. What target market characteristics will influence the ad's acceptance


Describe the traditional communication model?

1. So the organization would

2. release a message

3. through some sort medium,

4. then get feedback from consumers.

But really this model is one way, and it assumes consumers are couch potato that don't interact back


What is it when marketer may be more successful in persuading consumers who have agreed to let them try?

Permission marketing, such as fan gating with social media, and social media in general really


How is the Interactive Communications model different from traditional?

Instead of message being released through medium and feedback from consumers, the communication medium such as the internet allows sender and receivers to receive and send messages equally with marketer.

It says that consumers are actually a lot more proactive with communications process and what ads they choose to pay attention to


Consumers use media for more than just information gathering of the brand and whatnot, what are 3 things about consumers with uses and gratifications theory of media?

1. Active
2. Goal-directed
3. Draw on mass media to satisfy needs


What are 7 new message formats?

1. Mobile Commerce

2. Standard Blogging

3. Video blogging

4. Podcasts

5. Virtual worlds

6. Twitter

7. Widgets


What are the two types of feedback with interactive response?

1. First-order response
(direct marketing with transaction and sales date, so it could be a lead or inquiry to company)

2. Second-order response
(non-transaction, mostly customer feedback, or can even be someone sharing an ad on FB)


What is the Persuasion knowledge Model (PKM)?

When consumers develop knowledge about persuasion and use this knowledge to "cope" with persuasive attempts. So really exchange between consumer and persuasion agent (marketer) is a two-way interaction


With the Persuasion knowledge model, what are the three types of knowledge the target has?

1. Topic Knowledge
2. Agent Knowledge
3. Persuasion Knowledge


With persuasion, what are the source effects?

These are when same words by different people can have very different meanings.

So a source may be a famous, attractive, or expert to be spokesperson in ad


What are two things that make a good source?

1. Source Credibility

2. Source attractiveness


How do you build credibility with sources?

Ensure source has high perceived expertise, objectivity, or trustworthiness.

The consumer must believe they are competent and provides competitor information


For consumer, when is credible source persuasive?

When consumer has no formed opinion about product


Hype vs buzz?

hype: Inauthentic message generated by corporate propaganda

Buzz: Authentic message generated by customers


Give examples of hype and buzz


Word of mouth
Grass roots


How do firms generate buzz?

With stealth campaigns, by implying they had nothing to do with it, such as with youtube homy videos, bogus press reports, bogus reviews, and swarming the web


Define the "source attractiveness"

Perceived social value of source such as:

-Physical appearance
-Social status
-Celebriteis overseas (Japandering) ha


What is the Halo effect with attitudes towards sources?

People who rank high on one dimension are assumed to excel at other dimensions, such as attractive people thought to be smarter, cooler, happier


Is beauty credibility?

Yup, physically attractive sources lead to attitude changes and directs attention to marketing stimuli


Why are celebrities often used as communications sources in ads?

The famous faces capture attention and are processed more efficiently by the brain, which enhances company image and brand attitudes


What is match-up hypothesis?

That celebrity's image and that of product are similar


What is the most important feature in message?

To stress unique product attribute or benefit


What are some positive effects and negetative effects with message elements in TV commercials?

Show convenience
Show improved features
Background people incidental to message
indirect comparison to other products

Too much info such as ingredients and nutrition
Outdoor setting where info gets lost
Large number of onscreen characters
graphic displays


How are visual and verbal messaged different?

Visual: Emotional impact
Verbal: high involvement situations with factual info


When is verbal messaging more effective?

When reinforced by a framed picture, and requires more frequent exposures due to decay


What is the two-factor theory?

Repetitions can be double edged sword, because ads get tedious and begin to have negative effect after a while


What are the one sided and two sided arguments in message?

one-sided: Supportive arguments

Two-sided: Both positive and negative info. So this is when you refute an argument by bringing up negative issue, than dismissing. Or refute presented negative attributes with positive attributes.


When is two-sided arguments effective?

When it is with well-educated and not-yet-loyal audiences


What are the conditions for whether an argument should draw an explicit conclusion for the consumer?

Yes if the argument is hard to follow or consumer motivation is lacking

No if message is personally relevant


With comparitive advertising, what are two things a brand should not do?

1. Merely say it is better than leading brand

2. Compare itself to a superior competitor


A confrontational approach to comparative advertising can result in what?

Source Derogation


Should ad be emotional or rational?

emotional when consumers find no differences between brands, such as cars and greeting cards

Rational is better when recall is important, and easier to measure effectiveness


Erotic ads draw attention, but strong sexual imagery may make consumers less likely to what?

1. Buy a product (unless it is sex product/toy)

2. Recall ad's content


When do humorous appeals really work?

When they violate expectations whilst being relatively benign


What are 5 types of appeals

1. Emotional
2. Rational
3. Sex
4. Humour
5. Fear


When is fear marketing most effective? (3 things)

1. Threat is moderate
2. Solution to problem presented
3. Source is highly credible


Are the strongest threats the most persuasive in fear appeal messages?



How do marketers use allegory?

Story about an abstract concept personified in a fictional character, such as jolly green giant


What are 4 literary elements that advertisers use to communicate benefits and meaning?

1. Allegory
2. Metaphor
3. Similie
4. Resonance


How are metaphor and simile different?

Simile compares two objects, whereas metaphor looks at two dissimilar objects in close relationship (A is B)

Simile (A is like B)


What is resonance literary elements?

Play on words with pictures


What are two types of story presentation?

(speech where source speaks directly to audience to persuade)

(Story that draws viewers with characters)


What is the Elaboration likelihood model ELM of persuasion?

Says that once consumers receive messages, they begin to process them


What are three variable crucial to ELM?

1. Message-processing involvement
2. Argument strength
3. Source characteristics

High involve are swayed by powerful arguments

Low involve are swayed by source attractiveness


Whats better, Super Bowl media buy, or Facebook?

It depends is the right answer! It depends for them all.


Is our level of persuasion knowledge getting better?

Yup, we can generally spot things such as product placement and we know that they payed for things. Drag race is an extreme and obvious example, we know they payed for their spots on RuPaul


What is source bias?

Consumer beliefs about products can be weakened by a source perceived to be based. So like if Taylow Swift being spokesperson for an investing firm. She doesn't know shit about investing in our eyes, so it's a knowledge bias.


How do we define source attractiveness?

Perceived social value


What are the 5 selected message issues facing a marketer that the professor chose to go on about?

1. Message conveyed in words or pictures?

2. How often should message be repeated

3. Should it draws an explicit conclusion

4. Should it show both sides of argument?

5. Should it explicitly compare product to competitors?


What are two conditions that make comparative advertising effective for a new product?

1. The new product does not merely say it is better than leading brand

2. The new product does not compare itself to an obviously superior competitor


When do you often see emotional appeals over rational appeals?

You hear emotional appeals when theres very little difference between the products. So bland beer makers such as coors and budweiser, they don't even bother with rational anything such as quality anymore. Its all the party bus and cute dogs for those guys.


What 3 things make humorous appeals more effective?

1. Doesn't swamp message of clearly defined brand

2. Doesn't make fun of potential consumer

3. Appropriate to product's image


 The ELM is one of the most influential theory for persuasion. Professor WILL ask all about it on exam, know it perfectly.

In visuals-to-know folder


So ELM model looks at high and low involvement. Looking at modern stuff, what is it kind of missing now?

Now we're also looking at emotional and rational involvement components. And the ELM model is missing this.

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