Chapter 8- Cellular Reproduction; Cells from Cells Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8- Cellular Reproduction; Cells from Cells Deck (31):
1

parthenogenesis

the production of offspring by female without involvement of a male. One form of asexual reproduction.

2

asexual reproduction

the creation of a new generation without participation of sperm and egg.

3

Cell division

the two "daughter" cells that result are genetically identical to each other and to the original "parent" cell.

4

Chromosomes

the structures that contain most of the cell's DNA.

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sexual reproduction

Requires fertilization of an egg by a sperm.

6

Gametes

egg and sperm-- involves a special type of cell division called meiosis, which occurs only in reproductive organs.

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Chromatin

Combination of DNA and proteins that constitutes chromosomes; used to refer to form of chromosome in nondividing eukaryotic cell

8

Histones

Small basic protein associates with DNA and important in DNA packaging in eukaryotic cells

9

sister chromatids

One of the two identical parts of a duplicated chromosome in a eukaryotic cell

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Centromere

Region of s chromosome where two sister chromatids are joined and where spindle microtubules attach during mitosis and meiosis

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interphase

Period of the cell cycle when the cell is not actually dividing

12

Miotic phase

Part of cell cycle that includes mitosis and cytokinesis producing two daughter cells

13

Cytokinesis

Division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells; usually occurs during telophase of mitosis; mitosis and cytokinesis make up the M (mitotic) phase of the cell cycle

14

Mitotic spindle

Spindle-shaped structures formed form microtubules and associated proteins that is involved in the movement of chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis

15

Centrosome

Material in the cytoplasm of a cell that gives rise to microtubules;

16

cleavage furrow

an indentation at the equator of the cell.

17

Cell plate

Double membrane across the midline of a dividing plant cell between which the new cell wall forms during cytokinesis

18

Cell Cycle Control System

Specialized proteins within the cell that integrate information from the environment and from other body cells and send "stop " and "go-ahead" signals at certain key points during the cell cycle.

19

cancer

disease of the cell cycle by cells dividing excessively and may invade other tissues of the body.

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Tumor

an abnormally growing mass of body cells.

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Benign tumor

the lump of abnormal cells remaining at the original site

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malignant tumor

one that has the potential to spend into neighboring tissues and other parts of the body, forming new tumors.

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metastasis

the spread of cancer cells beyond their original site

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somatic cell

typical body cell that has 46 chromosomes in humans.

25

Karyotype

a display of the metaphase chromosomes of a cell, arranged by size and centromere position.

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homologous chromosomes

the two chromosomes of such a matching pair carry genes controlling the same inherited characteristics.

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sex chromosomes

determine a persons sex.

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autosomes

Females have two X chromosomes, the remaining chromosomes, found both in males and females are called autosomes.

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Metastasis

the spread of cancer cells beyond their original site.

30

radiation therapy

parts of the body that have cancerous tumors are exposed to concentrated beams of high-energy radiation, which often harm cancer cells more than normal cells.

31

Chemotherapy

the use of drugs to disrupt cell division, is used to treat widespread or metastatic tumors.