Chapter 8- Def First Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8- Def First Deck (60):
1

Localized abnormal dilation of a vessel, usually an artery

aneurysm

2

Condition of being stopped or bringing to a stop

arrest

3

loss of effective cardiac function, which results in cessation of circulation

cardiac arrest

4

cessation of the circulation of blood due to ventricular standstill or fibrillation

circulatory arrest

5

inability of the heart to maintain a normal sinus ryhthm, possibly including a rapid or slow beat or "skipping" a beat; also called dysrthythmia

arrhythmia

6

soft blowing sound heard on auscultation, possibly due to vibrations associated with the movement of blood, valvular action, or both; also called murmur

bruit

7

any disease or weakening of heart muscle that diminished cardiac function

cardiomyopathy

8

thin, flexible, hollow plastic tube that is small enough to be threaded through a vein, artery, or tubular structure

catheter

9

narrowing of a vessel, especially the aorta

coarctation

10

blood clot that forms in the deep veins of the body, especially those in the legs or thighs

deep vein thrombosis (DVT)

11

calculation of how much blood a ventricle can eject with one contraction. left ventricular EF averages 50-70% in healthy hearts

ejection fraction (EF)

12

failure of the heart to supply an adequate amount of blood to tissues and organs

heart failure (HF)

13

mass of undissolved matter (foreign object, air, gas tissue, thrombus) circulating in blood or lymphatic channels until it becomes lodged in a vessel

embolus

14

quivering or spontaneous muscle contractions, especially of the heart, causing ineffectual contractions

fibrillation

15

arrest of bleeding or circulation

hemostasis

16

excessive amounts of lipids (cholesterol, phospholipids, and triglycerides) in the blood

hyperlipidemia

17

common disorder characterized by elevated blood pressure persistently exceeding 140 mm Hg systolic or 90 mm Hg diastolic.

hypertension (HTN)

18

HTN in which there is no identifiable cause; also called essential hypertension. most common form

Primary hypertension

19

HTN that results from an underlying, identifiable, commonly correctable cause

Secondary hypertension

20

any heart disorder caused by prolonged hypertension, including left ventricular hypertrophy, coronary artery disease, cardiac arrhythmias, and heart failure

hypertensive heart disease

21

implantable battery-powered device that monitors and automatically corrects ventricular tachycardia or fibrilation by sending electric impulses to the heart

implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD)

22

area of tissue that undergoes necrosis following cessation of blood supply

infarct

23

local and temporary deficiency of blood supply due to circulatory obstruction

ischemia

24

common and occasionally serious condition in which the leaflets of the mitral valve prolapse into the left atrium during systole causing a characteristic murmur heard on ausculation (common s/s = palpitations, panic attacks)

mitral valve prolapse (MVP)

25

chemical radioactive material used as a tracer to follow a substance through the body or a structure

radioisotope

26

sensation that the heart is not beating normally, possibly including: Thumping, fluttering, skipped beats, or a pounding feeling in the chest

palpitation

27

failure of the ductus arteriosus to close after birth, allowing blood to flow from the aorta into the pulmonary (lung) artery

patent ductus arteriosus

28

circulation of blood through tissues or the passage of fluids through vessels of an organ

perfusion

29

congenital anomaly consisting of four elements: 1. pulmonary artery stenosis; 2. interventricular septal defect; 3/ transposition of the aorta, so that both ventricles empy into the aorta; 4. right ventricular hypertrophy caused by increased workload of the right ventricle

tetralogy of fallot

30

sled or threadlike device used to hold open vessels, tubes, or obstructed arteries

stent

31

blood clot that obstructs a vessel

thrombus

32

passage of a catheter into the heart through a vein or artery to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the heart (look at blood flow)

cardiac catheterization (CC)

33

graphic line recording that shows the spread of electrical excitation to different parts of the heart using small metal electrodes applied to the chest, arms, and legs (help diagnose abnormal heart rhythms)

electrocardiogram (ECG, EKG)

34

profuse sweating

diaphoresis

35

inability of a valve to close completely

incompetent

36

chest pain

angina

37

varicose veins of the esophagus

varices

38

small masses of inflammatory material found on the leaflets of valves

vegetations

39

24- hour ECG tracing taken with a small, portable recording system

Holter Monitor test

40

noninvasive ultrasound diagnostic test used to visualize internal cardiac structures

echocardiography

41

radiological examination of the blood vessels of and around the heart

coronary angiography

42

agents used to treat angina

nitrates

43

drugs that have powerful lipid-lowering properties

statins

44

management of edema associated with heart failure and hypertension

diuretics

45

include troponin T, troponin I, creatinine kinase

cardiac enzyme studies

46

injection and detection of radioactive isotopes to create images and identify function and disease

scintigraphy

47

ECG taken under controlled exercise stress conditions

stress test

48

tying of a varicose vein and subsequent removal

ligation and stripping

49

surgical separation of the leaflets of the mitral valve

commissurotomy

50

removal of a small segment of an artery for diagnostic purposes

arterial biopsy

51

destruction of conductive tissue of the heart to interrupt abnormal contractions

catheter ablation

52

technique used to block blood flow to a site by injecting an occluding agent

embolization

53

procedure that alters a vessel through surgery or dilation

angioplasty

54

dilation of an occluded vessel using a balloon catheter

PTCA

55

surgery that creates a bypass around a blocked segment of a coronary artery

CABG

56

removal of occluding material using a cutting or grinding device

atherectomy

57

incision or puncture of a vein to remove blood or introduce fluids

venipuncture

58

destruction of a blood clot

thrombolysis

59

elevation of cholesterol in the blood. has been associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis

hypercholesterolemia

60

the heart quivers rather than beats, and blood is not pumped to the brain. can cause death unless treatment in 5-10 minutes

ventricular fibrillation