Chapter 8: Exercise Psychology for the Personal Trainer Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8: Exercise Psychology for the Personal Trainer Deck (60):
1

This percent of Americans is sedentary during leisure time, and this percent who begin a regime will quit within 6 months

40%
50%

2

short-term stress related process

state anxiety

3

long-term stress related process

trait anxiety

4

mental state that is characterized by feelings of apprehension or threat and accompanied by increased physiological arousal, particularly as mediated by the autonomic nervous system

state anxiety

5

This type of anxiety is largely characterized by this

flight or fight response

6

dispositional factor relating to the probability that a given person is likely to perceive situations as threatening

trait anxiety

7

reductions in anxiety are typically observed during this form of exercise, but are also seen in low intensity and higher-volume forms of this type of exercise as well

aerobic
resistance

8

a rebound expression of positive affect on termination of a high-intensity exercise bout following the uncomfortable feelings and strain during exertion

opponent-process theory

9

short reason behind the opponent-process theory

increased levels of mood altering central neurotransmitters, persist after the stress of exercise resulting in a sense of satisfaction

10

T/F: the rhythmic nature of the exercise stimulus may quiet the brain, and reduce anxiety

T

11

Activation of this portion of the cerebral cortex is elevated relative to this portion after exertion

left frontal
right

12

the metabolic inefficiency of the human body that results in heat production during exercise causing a cascade of events leading to relaxation

thermogenic effect

13

two external reasons exercise may reduce stress or depression

social setting/interaction
goal accomplishment/mastery

14

T/F: physical exercise isn't as effective as medication in reducing symptoms of clinical depression

F, is as

15

levels of these are increased during exercise, and have an antidepressive effect

serotonin
norepinephrine
dopamine

16

The cognitive benefits of exercise are most pronounced in this age group

older than 55

17

this has been described as a fundamental index of the overall integrity of the CNS

reaction time

18

T/F: physical fitness decreases the decline in cerebral blood flow that normally occurs with aging, or exerts an angiogenic effect

T

19

T/F: exercise has no effect on increasing the expression of genes that code for neurotrophic factors

F

20

T/F: efficiency of the brain may be due to the maintenance of neurotransmitter function as well as the neurotrophic effect, which likely work in concert with better oxygenation due to angiogenesis to collectively preserve mental function

T

21

The greatest magnitude of cognitive benefit of exercise seems to occur in these types of tasks

executive tasks

22

T/F: exercise and physical activity are of little help to those who are at risk of dementia

F

23

This technique can be defined as a strategic approach to behavioral change by which progressive standards of success are set in an attempt to increasingly approximate a desired standard of achievement

systematic goal setting

24

this in inherent in the completion of or progress toward the short term goal, and leads to the cognitive evaluation of success or failure

Feedback

25

The purpose of this is to provide a meaningful pursuit for the client

long-term goal

26

provides a strategy to achieve the long-term goal via attainable steps

short-term goal

27

a challenging goal is one that has about this percent chance of success

50%

28

upon reaching a goal the client may experience an increase in self-esteem or self-efficacy which is this type of behavior reinformcement

psychological

29

upon reaching a goal the client may experience a release of dopamine, which functions to strengthen synaptic pathways involved in learning a behavior, which is this type of behavior reinforcement

neurobiological

30

Three types of goals

process goals
outcome goals
performance goals

31

goals that clients have a high degree of personal control over

process goals

32

goals that clients have a low degree of personal control over

outcome goals

33

these types of goals have a moderate amount of personal conrol

performance goals

34

these types of goals are exemplified by social comparison

outcome goals

35

T/F: a successful goalsetting program should include a diverse combination of short-term and long-term goals

T

36

clients who gauge their performance improvement on the pasis of previous ability level are said to be this

task involved

37

clients who base their sense of improvement on comparison to the performance of one or more other are said to be this

ego-involved, or other-referenced

38

a psychological construct that arouses and directs behavior

motivation

39

an internal drive or neural process that cannot be directly observed but must be indirectly inferred from observation of outward behavior

construct

40

two dimensions of motivation

time and commitment
intensity

41

This increases the likelihood that a behavior will be repeated, and this decreases the likelihood that a behavior will be repeated

reinforcement
punishment

42

giving someone something as a reward

positive reinforcement

43

taking something away from someone as a reward

negative reinforcement

44

giving someone something as a punishment

positive punishment

45

taking something away form someone as a punishment

negative punishment

46

this style of leadership focuses on the progress of the client

reinforcing style

47

this type of behavior is engaged in for the sense of enjoyment derived from it

intrinsically motivated

48

this type of behavior is engaged to achieve another goal or outcome

extrinsically motivated

49

T/F: the extrinsically motivated client truly loves to exercise, whereas an intrinsically motivated client typically exercises only to acieve an external reward

F, flip them

50

This type of client is much more likely to continue to adhere to an exercise program

intrinsically motivated

51

the client has a total lack of intrinsic or extrinsic motivation

amotivation

52

the client engages in behavior to avoid punishment, not for personal satisfaction

external regulation

53

the client views exercise and training behavior as a means to a valued end

introjected regulation

54

the client accepts the personal trainer's instructions as beneficial but primarily follows the leadership of the personal trainer instead of initiating exercise behavior

identified regulation

55

the client personally values exercise behavior, internalizes it, and freely engages in it: the client and the personal trainer agree on the goals for the client

integrated regulation

56

T/F: if a strong dependency is formed between behavior and reward, removal of the reward is likely to result in lessening of the behavior

t

57

A persons confidence in his or her own ability to perform specific actions leading to a successful behavioral outcome

self-efficacy

58

performance accomplishments, modeling effects, verbal persuasion, and physiological arousal or anxiety all do this

affect or build self-efficacy

59

This has more impact than anything else on raising a clients self-efficcy

achieving success

60

Minimizing procrastination, identifying false beliefs, identify and modify self talk, use mental imagery and visualization

methods to motivate a client