Flashcards in Chapter 8: Intelligence Throughout the Life Span Deck (98):
Because _____ is a hypothetical construct, psychologists have disagreed on how to define it. Different tests, therefore, ask different questions and may measure different ____.
The capacity to acquire and use knowledge.
The total body of acquired knowledge.
A major questions related to intelligence has been "does intelligence consist of a single core factor or does it consist of many separate, ______?
Spearman concluded that cognitive abilities could be narrowed down to one critical g-factor, or _____ intelligence.
JP Guilford proposed that intelligence consists of ____ distinct abilities.
LL Thurston used a ______ technique known as factor analysis to find 7 independent primary mental abilities; numerical ability, reasoning, verbal fluency, spatial visualization, perceptual ability, memory, and verbal comprehension
Raymond Cattell argued that a g-factor does exist, but cognitive ability consists of ____, reasoning and problem solving) and crystallized intelligence (specific knowledge gained from applying _____).
Sternbery proposed a _____ theory of intelligence that specifies 3 important parts of intelligence componential intelligence (includes metacomponents, perfomance components, and knowledge acquisiton components) experiential intelligence, and contextual intelligence.
triarchic theory of intelligence
Gardner's theory of _____ proposed seven different components of intelligence that include not only language ability, logical-mathematical thinking, and spatial thinking but also musical, bodily kinesthetic, interpersonal,and intrapersonal thinkng.
Early interest in intelligence testing dates back to the eugenics movement of _____.
Sir Frances Galton
Galton believed that it is possible to improve genetic characteristics (including intelligence) through ____.
The 1st effective test of intelligence was devised in the early 1900s by French psychologist ______.
Binet was appointed by the French Ministry of Public Instruction to design an intelligence test that would identify children who needed to be removed from the _____ classroom so that they could receive special instruction.
Binet and his colleague Theodore Simon devised an intelligence test consisting of ____ subtests containing problems of increasing difficulty. The items on the test were designed to measure children's judgement, reasoning, and ______.
The first test was published in 1905 and then was revised in ____ and 1911.
The 1908 revision of the Binet and Simon scale introduced the notion of _____.
______ is a measure of a child's intellectual level that is independent of the child's chronological age (actual age).
Shortly after Binet's original work, Terman of Stanford University and his colleagues helped refine and _____ the test for American children. Their version came to be the _____ intelligence scale, and its latest revisions are still being used today.
Terman and others (Stern of Germany) developed the idea the IQ or ______ (sometimes referred to as the ratio IQ score).
To calculate IQ, a child's mental age (MA) (as determined by how well he or she does on the test) is divided by his or her ______ and multiplied by 100.
chronological age (CA)
The major advantage of the IQ score over simple MA is that it gives an index of a child's IQ test performance relative to others of the same _______.
The major problem with the ration IQ score is that most people's mental development slows in their ____. But a MA may remain fairly stable throughout adulthood, CA _____ over time. Using CA as the divisor in the IQ formula, therefore, results in an individuals IQ score diminishing over time (even though MA has not changed)
David Wechsler corrected this problem with ratio IQ scores by devising the _____ IQ score.
The deviation IQ score is calculated by converting the ____ on each subtest of the test to standard scores normalized for each age group. These standard scores are then translated into deviation IQ scores.
Wechsler reasoned that intelligence is normally distributed, or follows the _____ - that is the majority of people score at or around the mean, or average, score of 100 and progressively fewer people will achieve scores that spread out in either direction.
A group of IQ scores can be portrayed as a normal, bell curve with an average score of 100 and a standard deviation that is the same at ____.
every age level
The advantage of the deviation IQ is that the standing of an individual can be compared with the scores of others of the same age, and the intervals from age to age ____. Therefore, deviation IQ scores indicate exactly where a test taker falls in the ____ distribution of intelligence.
remain the same
Terman adopted the deviation IQ as the scoring _____ for the 1960 revision of the Standford-Binet Intelligence Scale, although he chose a standard deviation of 16 rather than 15. Almost all other intelligence tests today use deviation IQ scores.
There are ____ intelligence tests today that are the most widely used and they are individually administered by trained psychologists to one test taker at a time.
The stanford-binet intelligence scale was published in 1916, by Terman and his colleagues. It remains one of the world's most ____ used tests of intelligence (although there are criticisms of the scale).
The stanford-binet intelligence scale can be used with individuals from age ____ through adulthood.
In the latest revision of the standford-binet intelligence scale the word intelligence has been replaced by ______. The terms intelligence, IQ, and mental age are not used; instead, the term ______ is used.
Standard Age Score (SAS)
The latest revision, 4th edition of the stanford-binet intelligence test, measures ____ areas of cognitive development and a SAS can be calculated for each area as well as an overall composite score.
The stanford binet measures verbal reasoning, abstract/visual reasoning, quantitative reasoning, and ______.
short term memory
Because the Stanford Binet initially appeared to be unsatisfactory for use with adults, in 1939 Welscher published a test designed exclusively for ____. This test has since been revised and now known as the ______ or Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Revised.
Eventually, Wechsler published _____ (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 3rd ed for children 6-16) and WPPSI-R (Weschler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, Revised for children ____ of age)
The Wechsler scales were known for at least two major _____ when they were first developed.
The first major innovation was that they were less dependent on verbal ability than the Stanford BInet and included many items that required ______. These tests allow the computation of 3 scores, a verbal IQ, a performance IQ, and an _____ full scale IQ score.
The second major innovation, Weschler developed the deviation IQ score based on the normal distribution of intelligence and abandoned the notion of _______.
Wechsler's scales of intelligence are still widely used and ____ today.
The Bayley Scales of Infant Intelligence is a test designed to be used with infants ages ___ to ____ months.
2 to 30
The Bayley Scales of Infant Intelligence test has 3 scales including the motor scale, the mental scale, and the _____ record.
The Bayley Scales of Infant Intelligence test measures the degree to which the infant has achieved developmental milestones, can coordinate ______, and can follow directions.
Infants receive a developmental quotient (DQ) on the ______ test.
Bayley Scales of Infant Intelligence.
Scores on the Bayley Scales do not predict _____ IQ very well. However, a low DQ score may be a sign of intelectual ______ or neurological problems.
Intelligence tests, as with any other test, must have _______ and validity in order to be good quality.
Most intelligence tests used today demonstrate good reliability or _______ of scores.
The _____ of intelligence tests is the degree to which the tests measure what they are intended to measure.
Validity is often assessed using ______ validity. This entails correlating test scores with another independent measure of intelligence.
The validity of intelligence tests depends on the criterion _____.
i.e. they do a good job of predicting success in school.
Although intelligence test scores correlate with ______, they do not predict performance within a given occupation.
Intelligence tests have been criticized as being ____.
Children who have low socioeconomic status score on average ______ than children from middle to upper socioeconomic classes.
Some experts suggest that mainstream intelligence tests tap into experiences that people from the _________ groups have rather than the experiences of people from low status backgrounds. This ____ has led to several recent attempts to create a culture fair intelligence test.
middle to upper status
Intelligence test scores can and ____ change over time. It is possible to make ____ gains or loses in intelligence during adolescence and adulthood.
The nature vs nurture debate related to intelligence addresses whether ______ or environment determines one's intellectual skills.
_____ is an estimate of how much of a trait in a population is determined by genetic inheritance.
______ have become the most popular research tool to examine whether heredity or environment determines one's intellectual skills.
Correlational studies with twins suggest that ____ influences the development of intelligence.
i.e. the correlation of iq scores for identical twins is higher than the correlation for fraternal twins
Even identical twins reared ____ have more similar IQs than fraternal twins reared together in the same household.
There is research to indicate that environment also exerts an _____ on intelligence.
Sandra Scarr and other researchers have shown that _______ children placed in homes that provide an enriching intellectual environment have shown moderate but consistent increases in intelligence.
Children placed in various enrichment programs have also shown gains in ____.
The IQs of identical twins reared together in the same environment are more _____ than those for identical twins reared apart.
The term _____ has been applied to the nature vs nurture debate of intelligence. ______ implies that genetics may limit or define a potential range of IQ, but that environment can influence where along this range an individual's IQ score falls.
_____ and cultural differences in IQ are very small when compared to the range of genetic differences within each group.
Research has suggested, that the differences between mean intelligence test scores for black and white Americans may be due to differences in parental education, nutrition, _____, schools, motivation for doing well on a test.
Many have argued that intelligence tests are ______ biased because they have been developed by white, middle class psychologists. There is some research evidence to support this claim.
Attempts have been made to produce a language free, culture fair test of intelligence. The _____ is one such test.
Raven's progressive matrices
Many children show considerable fluctuation in IQ scores through _____.
Children may show both gains and loses in _____.
Children who live in poverty or are being raised by parents with low IQs show noticeable _____ in IQ. This has been explained by the cumulative deficit hypothesis that suggests the negative effects of living in a ______ environment build up over time.
Some children do show noticeable gains in IQ. These tend to be children who are exposed to stimulating environments and have ______ who foster their achievement. Some of these children may have benefited from intervention programs such as Head Start, which have been show to produced improved IQ scors.
During ____ IQ scores become much more stable and continue to be so through a good deal of adulthood.
Research on intelligence in adulthood is very ____. Early research on intelligence in adulthood was cross sectional and longitudinal. There was agreement that the steepest decline occurred in the ____.
Schaie conducted a seminal sequential study of intelligence in adulthood which began in 1956 and ended in 1984. Schaie measured changes in fluid and _____ intelligence.
Schaie found that fluid intelligence did show declines in adulthood and that this decline began earlier and was more ______ than declines in crystallized intelligence.
Schaie found that crystallized intelligence remained the same or even improved and then started to decline somewhat after the ____. Not all people showed declines. There were some who maintained the same levels of both fluid and crystallized intelligence into later life.
Schaie found large birth cohort differences in the patterns of both fluid and crystallized intelligence in adulthood. ____ birth cohorts retained higher levels of intelligence into late adulthood than members of ____ birth cohorts.
What has been particularly challenging in the study of intellectual performance in older adults is controlling for the confounding factor of ______ and health.
Diseases like cardiovascular disease are correlated with steeper intelectual decline, and there also is a phenomenon that has been observed called _______, which is a rapid decline in intellectual performance shortly before death.
Goleman recently suggested another form of intelligence he calls, _______, which is defined as a person's ability to understand, and adapt to ,emotion and emotional situations.
emotional intelligence or EQ
People with high EQs have an exceptional ability to ______ and deal with their own emotions and the emotions expressed by other people.
Goleman's controversial prediction is that EQ is ____ predictor of success in life than IQ. It remains to be seen what the relationship is between EQ and intelligence.
______ is the ability to produce something new and unique or that combines elements in new ways.
Creative problem solving involves coming up with a solution that is both unusual and ____.
Creative thinking usually involves _______, or thinking that produces many different correct answers to the same problem or question.
_____ thinking is when one correct answer is expected.
What is the capital of Illinois? one answer
Convergent thinking does not appear to be related to ____.
All creative thought is _____, not all divergent thought is creative.
Tests have been developed that measure creativity.
Remote Associates Test
In general, these tests of creativity have not been good at predicting who will be creative in _____ problem solving situations.
There is a modest correlation between creativity and ___.
Highly creative people tend to have above average intelligence, but ____. But the factors that generally predict IQ in children , do not predict creavtivity.
Identical twins do not have ____ similar creativity scores than fraternal twins or siblings.
Creativity seems to be a capacity that is maintained through _____.