Chapter 8 Memory Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8 Memory Deck (23):
1

Memory

Is learning that persists over time. Information that has been acquired and stored and can be retrieved.

2

Recall (1 of 3)

Measures of retention
RETRIEVING info that is not CURRENTLY in your conscious awareness, but that was learned at an earlier time.

3

Recognition (2-3)

Identifying items previously learned.

4

Relearning (3-3)

A measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material again.

5

Encoding

This is how the information gets in to our brain.

6

Storage Process

Process that retains info into our brain.

7

Retrieval Process

Process of getting info out of memory storage

8

Parallel Processing

Processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously.

9

Sensory Memory

Immediate, very brief recording of sensory info in the memory system.

10

Short Term Memory

Activated memory that holds a few items briefly. (Such as seven digits of a phone number, but forgetting it right after.)

11

Long Term Memory

Relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. (Knowledge, skills, and experience.)

12

Working Memory

Newer understanding of short-term memory that adds conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial info, and of info retrieved from long term memory.

13

Explicit Memories

Memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously declare.

14

Effortful Processing

Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.

15

Automatic Processing

Unconscious encoding of incidental info, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned info, such as word meanings.

16

Implicit Memories

Retention of learned skills or classically conditioned associations independent of conscious recollection.

17

Iconic Memory

A momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli. (Photographic or picture-image lasting no more then a few seconds.)

18

Echoic Memory

If attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3-4 seconds

19

Chunking

Organizing items into familiar, manageable units, often occurs automatically.

20

Mnemonics

Memory aids, those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices.

21

Spacing Effect

The tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice.

22

Shallow Processing

Encoding on a basic level based on the structure or appearance of the words.

23

Deep Processing

Encoding semantically, based on the meaning of the words; tend to yield best retention.