Chapter 8 : Microbial Genetics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8 : Microbial Genetics Deck (44):
1

What is genetics?

Science of heredity and includes the study of genes

2

Define genome

Genetic information in a cell

3

What are chromosomes?

Structures containing DNA that physically carry hereditary information

4

What does the central dogma of molecular biology describe?

DNA->mRNA->Protein->Function

5

What is a base pair?

Two strand held together by hydrogen bond between their nitrogenous bases

6

What happens in a base substitution?

Single DNA base pair is altered

7

What happens in a frameshift mutation?

DNA base pairs are added or removed from sequence, causing shift in sequence reading

8

What is the genetic code?

Set of rules that determine how nucleotide sequence is converted into amino acid sequence of protein

9

The genotype of an organism is what?

Its genetic makeup

10

Genotype represent what type of property?

Potential

11

What does phenotype refer to?

Actual, expressed properties

12

What are short tandem repeats?

Repeating sequences of noncoding DNA

13

What is the function of the connector proteins?

They link the leading strand DNA polymerase and the lagging strand DNA polymerase together.

14

Where would one find an uncharged tRNA molecule in a

In the P and E sites

15

How is translation terminated?

When a protein called a release factor enters and binds to the A site

16

What genetic element doe

The promoter

17

What is helicase

unzips the DNA helix

18

What is translation

translation
Protein synthesis process decoding mRNA code into polypeptide

19

What is regualtory RNA

micro RNA regulates gene expression act in coiling of chromatin in eukaryote cells

20

What are the 3 kinds of RNA

rRNA ribosomal,
tRNA, transcription
mRNA messengar

21

what is recombinant

deliberateness remove genetic material from one organism and combine it with that of a different organism (clones)

22

what are transposons

shifting from one part of genome to another termed, jumping genes

23

The 4 nitrogenous bases that make up DNA neucleotides

adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine

24

RNA the nitrogen bases include:

- Adenine (pairs with uricil)
- Guanine (pairs with cytosine)
- Cytosine
- Uracil

25

Okazaki fragments

Short fragments of DNA that are a result of the synthesis of the lagging strand during DNA replication

26

DNA ___ to RNA ___ to proteins

transcription : translation

27

Bacterial DNA is

circular

28

Bacterial chromosomes have ___ point(s) of origin

1

29

Which of the following statements about DNA is TRUE
a) DNA polymerase joins nucleotides in one direction only
b) The leading strand of DNA is made continuously
c) the lagging strand of DNA is started by an RNA primer
d) multiple replication forks are possible on a bacterial chromosome

a) DNA polymerase joins nucleotides in one direction only

30

DNA is constructed of

two strands of nucleotides running antiparellel

31

Which of the following is a product of transcription
a) rRNA
b) tRNA
c) mRNA

a) rRNA

32

Which of the following about bacteriocins are TRUE
a) the genes coding for them are on plasmids
b) Nisin is a bacteriocin used as food preservative
c) they can be used to identify certain bacteria
d) bacteriocins kill bacteria

a) the genes coding for them are on plasmids

33

Transformation is the transfer fo DNA from a donor to a recipient cell

as naked DNA in solution

34

Genetic change in bacteria can be brought about by
a) mutation
b) conjugation
c) transduction
d) transformation

a) mutation

35

Which of the following regarding a bacterium that is R+ is True

a) It possesses a plasmid
b) R+ can be transferred to a cell of the same species
c) it is resistant to certain drugs and heavy metal
d) R+ can be transferred to a different species

a) It possesses a plasmid

36

Recombination will always alter a cell's genotype

True

37

Bacteria contain multiple chromosomes

False

38

Mutation that are harmful to cells occur more tan those that benefit cells

True

39

Some organisms contain multiple genomes

False

40

Both base substitution and frameshift mutations can result in the formation of premature stop codon

True

41

How is the DNA helix held together?

It is covalently held with hydrogen bonds

42

What happens after the DNA has replicated?

the cell divides, forming two daughter cells, each containing identical genetic information

43

How is RNA similar to DNA?

It is similar in all ways except its sugar is ribose and in place of thymine, there is uracil

44

Depending on the gene, transcription makes one of three possible kinds of RNA:

1. messenger RNA (or mRNA)
2. ribosomal RNA (or rRNA)
3. transfer RNA (or tRNA)