Chapter 8 - Motivation & Emotion Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8 - Motivation & Emotion Deck (47):
1

Motivation

The state in which an organism experiences an inducement or incentive to do something.

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Motive

A hypothetical state within an organism that propels the organism toward a goal.

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Need

A state of deprivation.

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Drive

A condition of arousal in an organism that is associated with a need.

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Incentive

An object, person, or situation perceived as capable of satisfying a need or as desirable for its own sake.

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Instinct

An inherited disposition to activate specific behavior patterns that are designed to reach certain goals.

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Drive-Reduction Theory

The view that organisms learn to engage in behaviors that have the effect of reducing drives.

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Primary Drives

Unlearned, or physiological, drives.

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Secondary (Acquired) Drives

Drives acquired through experience or that are learned.

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Homeostasis

The tendency of the body to maintain a steady state.

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Stimulus Motive

A state within an organism that propels it toward increasing the amount of stimulation it obtains.

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Self-Actualization

According to Maslow and other humanistic psychologists, self-initiated striving to become what one is capable of being. The motive for reaching one’s full potential, for expressing one’s unique capabilities.

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Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

Maslow’s ordering of needs from most basic (physiological needs such as hunger and thirst) to most elaborate and sophisticated (self-actualization).

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Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs - Listed in Order of Need

BIOLOGICAL & PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS
-basic life needs: air, food, drink, sex, etc.
SAFETY NEEDS
-protection, security, order, law, limits, etc.
BELONGINGNESS & LOVE NEEDS
-family, affection, relationships, work group, etc.
ESTEEM NEEDS
-achievement, status, responsibility, reputation.
SELF-ACTUALIZAION
-personal growth and fulfillment.

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Satiety

The state of being satisfied; fullness.

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Ventromedial Nucleus (VMN)

A central area on the underside of the hypothalamus that appears to function as a stop-eating center.

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Hyperphagic

Characterized by excessive eating.

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Lateral Hypothalamus

An area at the side of the hypothalamus that appears to function as a start-eating center.

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Aphagic

Characterized by undereating.

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Set Point

A weight range that one’s body is programmed to maintain such that the body will increase or decrease its metabolic rate according to the amount of calories one consumes.

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Anorexia Nervosa

A life-threatening eating disorder characterized by dramatic weight loss and a distorted body image.

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Bulimia Nervosa

An eating disorder characterized by repeated cycles of binge eating and purging.

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Activating Effect

The arousal-producing effects of sex hormones that increase the likelihood of sexual behavior.

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Sexual Response Cycle

Masters and Johnson’s model of sexual response, which consists of four stages or phases: excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution.

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Vasocongestion

Engorgement of blood vessels with blood, which swells the genitals and breasts during sexual arousal.

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Myotonia

Muscle tension.

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Excitement Phase

The first phase of the sexual response cycle, which is characterized by muscle tension, increases in the heart rate, and erection in the male and vaginal lubrication in the female.

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Pheromone

A chemical secretion detected by other members of the same species that stimulates a certain kind of behavior.

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Plateau Phase

The second phase of the sexual response cycle, which is characterized by increases in vasocongestion, muscle tension, heart rate, and blood pressure in preparation for orgasm.

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Ejaculation

The process of propelling seminal fluid (semen) from the penis.

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Orgasm

The height, or climax, of sexual excitement, involving involuntary muscle contractions, release of sexual tensions, and usually, subjective feelings of pleasure.

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Resolution Phase

The fourth phase of the sexual response cycle, during which the body gradually returns to its prearoused state.

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Refractory Period

In the sexual response cycle, a period of time following orgasm during which an individual is not responsive to sexual stimulation.

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Organizing Effect

The directional effect of sex hormones—for example, along typical male or female patterns of mating.

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Sexual Orientation

The directionality of one’s sexual and romantic interests; that is, whether one is sexually attracted to, and desires to form a romantic relationship with, members of the other sex or of one’s own sex.

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Extrinsic Rewards

The rewards associated with performance goals, such as a good salary, health care, and retirement benefits.

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Intrinsic Rewards

The rewards associated with learning goals, such as self-esteem and increased understanding and insight.

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Emotion

A state of feeling that has cognitive, physiological, and behavioral components.

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Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)

The division of the peripheral nervous system that regulates glands and activities such as heartbeat, respiration, digestion, and dilation of the pupils.

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Sympathetic Nervous System

The branch of the autonomic nervous system that is most active during processes that spend body energy from stored reserves, such as in a fight-or-flight reaction to a predator or when you are anxious about a big test. When people experience fear, the sympathetic nervous system accelerates the heart rate, raises blood pressure, tenses muscles, and so on.

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Amygdala

An almond-shaped structure in the frontal part of the temporal lobe that is part of the limbic system and involved in processing and expressing emotions, particularly fear.

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Parasympathetic Nervous System

The branch of the autonomic nervous system that is most active during processes that restore reserves of energy to the body, such as relaxing and eating. When people relax, the parasympathetic nervous system decelerates the heart rate, normalizes blood pressure, relaxes muscles, and so on. The parasympathetic division also stimulates digestion.

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Positive Psychology

The field of psychology that is about personal well-being and satisfaction; joy, sensual pleasure, and happiness; and optimism and hope for the future.

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Facial Feedback Hypothesis

The view that stereotypical facial expressions can contribute to stereotypical emotions.

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James-Lange Theory of Emotion

The view that certain external stimuli instinctively trigger specific patterns of arousal and action, such as fighting or fleeing. This theory says that we experience emotions as a consequence of our physiological and behavioral responses.

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Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion

The view that emotions accompany bodily responses but are not caused by them.

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Cognitive Appraisal Theory of Emotion

More recent theoretical approaches to emotion have stressed cognitive factors.