Chapter 8: Religion, Peace And Conflict Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8: Religion, Peace And Conflict Deck (60):

Some Christians such as ________ believe war is always wrong. While others believe war is acceptable under certain conditions



Buddhism teaches there are no justifiable reasons for war

And people Cannot relieve their own suffering by making others suffer


The concepts of peace justice forgiveness and reconciliation are important both in the

Aftermath of conflict and as tools to prevent war from happening in the first place


What is peace

The absence of conflict and war which leads to happiness and harmony


What’s the aim of war

May be to create peace but this can be hard to achieve because of the instability and resentment left after a war ends


Peace is also a feeling of

Happiness and tranquility that can come through prayer and meditation which helps people to avoid conflict


Christians believe that god will

Bring peace to the world at some time in the future


Buddhism teaches that

Violence comes from the mind and so to create peace people must develop it within themselves


What’s justice

Bringing about what is right and fair
According to the law or making up for a wrong that has been committed


What is justice linked to

Equality and the idea that it is just to give everyone the same opportunities


If certain governments or parts of the world are seen to be the cause of inequality and injustice then

Conflict may result


What does Buddhism teach about bringing about justice

That non-violent methods should be used


What’s forgiveness

Showing compassion and mercy and pardoning someone for what they have done wrong


Forgiveness does not necessarily mean no action should be taken to right a wrong but

When conflict is over forgiveness should follow


Christians are taught to forgive others if they wish to be forgiven (the Lord’s Prayer)

They believe God sets the example by offering forgiveness to all who ask for it in faith


For Buddhists forgiveness is important because

It expresses loving - kindness and allows them to let go of anger and hatred


What does reconcilitaioton mean

Means restoring friendly relationships after conflict


What’s reconciliation require

A conscious effort (and sometimes much work) to rebuild the relationship


Reconciliation doesn’t mean ignoring the past but building

A constructive relationship for the future


For Buddhists letting go of blame and resentment is important in



What’s the rules about protesting in the uk?

The right to protest is a fundamental democratic freedom but it is illegal to protest violently


What’s terrorism

The unlawful use of violence, usually against innocent civilians, to achieve a political goal) is a much more serious from of violent protest


What’s Christian and Buddhist views on violent protests and terrorism

They are against it


Examples of peaceful protests

1950s and 60s.christian dr Martin Luther king jr organised peaceful protests against unjust racist laws in the USA
These succeeded in changing us law and bringing civil rights to all its citizens of any race

In 1990s Cambodian Buddhist monk ghosanada led peaceful marches in protest at a repressive Vietnamese government
His aim was to encourage reconciliation and peace after decades of civil conflict


What are some reasons for war

Self defence


Many Christians believe fighting in self defence is morally acceptable while most Buddhists believe

There is no reason to go to war even in self defence


Why is greed a reason for war

To gain more land or control of important resources

Christianity teaches that greed is wrong “for the love of money is a root of all kinds of evil”

Buddhism teaches that greed is one of the three poisons and one of the main causes of suffering

It teaches there are always unhealthy consequences based on greed


Why is retaliation a reason for war

Sometimes fought in retaliation against s county that has done something very wrong

Christians try to follow the advice of jesus who taught that retaliation is wrong “but I tell you, do not resist an evil person. If anyone slaps you on the right cheek turn to them the other cheek also”

For Buddhists retaliation is a form of vengeance and expressed greed another one of the three poisons
It therefore increased suffering and should be avoided
“For not by hatred are hatred ever quenched here but they are quenched by nonhatred. This is the ancient rule”


Why is self defence a reason for war

People might fight in self defence if there country is under attack or to help defend other nations who are under threat
Eg during the second work war the uk fought to defend itself against Nazi invasion and also to defeat what it saw as an evil threat to the whole of eaurope
Many Christians believ fighting in self defence is morally acceptable providing all peaceful ways of solving the conflict have been tried first
In Buddhism the most fundamental ethical principle is not to take life even in self defence
Eg the Vietnamese monk thich nhat hanh said that killing is never justified and people should instead develop compassion towards those who wish to harm them
Not all Buddhists agree and some are willing to fight in self defence


What Ar enuclear weapons

Weapons that work by a nuclear reaction they devastate huge areas and kill large numbers of people


What are weapons of mass destruction

Weapons that kill large numbers of people and/or cause great damage
They include chemical weapons and biological weapons


What’s nuclear deterrence

Stockpiling nuclear weapons to deter or prevent an enemy attack


The use of nuclear weapons

US forces used atom (nuclear) bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki During the Second World War in response japan surrendered ending the war
Some people say that as the atom bombs ended the war their use was justified
Since then many countries have developed powerful nuclear weapons as a deterrent


Weapons of mass destruction

In addition to nuclear weapons other weapons of mass destruction are biological weapons (using living organisms to cause disease or death) and chemical weapons (using chemicals to harm humans and destroy the natural environment)
This production, stockpiling and use of these weapons is illegal worldwide
Despite this many countries still possess them


Christian views on nuclear war and weapons of mass destruction

Only god has the right to end life

One of the Ten Commandments is “you shall not murder”

Weapons of mass destruction kill huge numbers of innocent civilians, so their use can never be justified”

Their use goes against the teachings of Jess

“Any use of nuclear weapons would violate the sanctity of life and the principle of dignity core to our faith traditions”

Some Christians see the stockpiling of nuclear weapons as a useful deterrent to maintain peace and prevent attack


Buddhist views on nuclear war and weapons of mass destruction

Weapons of mass destruction cause large-scale suffering and their use goes against the first moral precept, which is to abstain from taking life

Most Buddhists believe nuclear weapons should be abolished as there is always a risk they will be used as long as they exists

They also believe the real problem is not the weapons themselves but the attitudes of human beings

When there is hatred it will seek a means to hurt others

‘For peace, the basic thing to do is not to remove nuclear weapons but to remove the fear, anger and suspicion in us’


What’s a just war

Meets internationally accepted criteria for fairness


The just war theory gives conditions that must apply to make a war justifiable, and the rules on

How the war must be fought to make sure it is ethical


The just war theory was developed by

Christians and is accepted by many Christians today although most think it is much better to prevent war from happening at all


Buddhist views on a just war

Do not support it at all


What are the six conditions for a just war

Must be fought for a just cause

Must be declared by the correct authority

Must have a just intention

Must be a last resort

Must have a reasonable chance of success

Must be proportional


The three rules for fighting a just war

Must be fought by just means

Only appropriate force should be used

Internationally agreed conventions must be obeyed


What’s a holy war

A war fought for a religious cause or god
Controlled by a religious leader


Example of a holy war

The crusades.
These were battles between Christians and Muslims in the eleventh to fourteenth centuries. Both believed god was on their side

Most Christians today believe it is better to defen the faith through words rather than violence

Buddhism teaches that no war can be justified even in self defence so does not support the concept of holy war


Christian views to religion as a cause of violence

Most Christians today do not respond violently to an attack on their faith

Most Christians accept Jesus’ teaching that not only violence but the anger that leads to violence is wrong

Jesus said “put your sword back in its place for all who draw the sword die by the sword”


Buddhist views on religion as a cause of violence

Basic commitment to non-violence in Buddhism

Buddhism teaches that instead of responding to violence with violence people should conquer the violent tendencies within themselves and have confidence this will have s positive impact on the world


What is pacifism

The belief of people who’d refuse to take part in war and any other from of violence


Many Christians are not pacifists because they believe

War is sometimes necessary in self defence while many Buddhists are pacifists and believe war is never justified


What’s peacemaking

The action of trying to establish peace a peacemaker is someone who works to establish peace in the world or in a certain part of it


What do pacifists believe

War and violence can rarely or never be justified

It is best to prevent war from becoming a possibility by promoting justice and peace

Prayer and meditation can help people to be at peace with themselves and others


Christian views on pacifists

The religious society of friends (quakers) is a Christian denomination that strongly supports pacifism

Christian pacifists follow jesus’ example and teaching :
“Blessed are the peacemakers for they shall be called children of god”

Many Christians are not pacifists because they believe war can be justified under s certain criteria


Buddhist views on pacifist is

Buddhist teachings strongly promote pacifism

The first moral precept teaches that Buddhists should not harm or kill any living being

The Buddha taught that Buddhists should try instead to develop compassion for all beings and that violence should be avoided

Buddhism teaches that to love in peace Buddhists must try to create a world that favours peaceful states of mind


Modern day peace makers

Many pacifists and peacemakers believe it is important to resist oppression and injustice in non violent ways. To help create a just and equal world where conflict is not necessary. Eg Buddhism teaches that peace comes from within each person but peiple also need to work to improve society so it is easier to develop this sense of piece


Victims of war may include

Those directly involved in the fighting their families and dependence and refugees who times and societies have been destroyed


There are many organisations that offer help and care for victims of war such as Carrie tiles and that is Oochee foundation

Christian and Buddhists a support organisation such as these


There are many organisations that help the victims of war from those providing shelter and supplies for refugees to those

Providing medical and psychological care for members of the military


Christian views for helping victims of war

Question support such organisations because Jesus told people to “love your neighbour as yourself “in the parable of the go tomorrow 10 Jesus taught that everybody is everybody else’s neighbour regardless of race age gender religion or political beliefs


But it’s views on providing help the victims of war

But with support such organisations because they believe all suffering should be stopped many British believes victims of warning psychological expert to help in addition to the basic necessities. Required for survival that time should be hard to develop compassion towards the grasses as this is not only help the victims but was unable to change “when another person makes it Sophia is because we were then himself



A catholic organisation that helps the poor and promotes justic worldwide

Inspired by the teachings of jesus and the catholics churhc

Aims to provide practical help to this suffering through conflict

In 2015, provided food and shelter to refugees fleeing the civil war in Syria

Also provided translators and legal services so the refugees could make informed decisions about their futures


Tzu chi foundation

Buddhist organisation founded in Taiwan
Inspired by the bodhisattve goal to help all beings become free from suffering
Runs educational, welfare, health and cultural projects
Opened a clinic in Istanbul to help with the medical needs of strain refugees
All treatment in this clinic is free. Refuge strain doctors work in the clinic to help reduce language barriers and make meaningful use of their skills