Chapter 8 - Terms Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8 - Terms Deck (23):
1

social class

according to Weber, a large group of people who rank close to one another in property, power, and prestige; according to Marx, one of two groups: capitalists who own the means of production or workers who sell their labor

2

property

material possessions: animals, bank accounts, bonds, buildings, businesses, cars, cash, commodities, copyrights, furniture, jewelry, land, and stocks

3

wealth

the total value of everything someone owns, minus the debts

4

income

money received, usually from a job, business, or assets

5

power

the ability to carry out one’s will, even over the resistance of others

6

power elite

C. Wright Mills’ term for the top people in U.S. corporations, military, and politics who make the nation’s major decisions

7

prestige

respect or regard

8

status consistency

ranking high or low on all three dimensions of social class

9

status inconsistency

ranking high on some dimensions of social class and low on others; also called status discrepancy

10

status

the position that someone occupies in a social group; also called social status

11

anomie

Durkheim’s term for a condition of society in which people become detached from the usual norms that guide their behavior

12

contradictory class locations

Erik Wright’s term for a position in the class structure that generates contradictory interests

13

underclass

a group of people for whom poverty persists year after year and across generations

14

intergenerational mobility

the change that family members make in social class from one generation to the next

15

upward social mobility

movement up the social class ladder

16

downward social mobility

movement down the social class ladder

17

structural mobility

movement up or down the social class ladder that is due more to changes in the structure of society than to the actions of individuals

18

exchange mobility

a large number of people moving up the social class ladder, while a large number move down; it is as though they have exchanged places, and the social class system shows little change

19

poverty line

the official measure of poverty; calculated to include incomes that are less than three times a low-cost food budget

20

feminization of poverty

a condition of U.S. poverty in which most poor families are headed by women

21

culture of poverty

the assumption that the values and behaviors of the poor make them fundamentally different from other people, that these factors are largely responsible for their poverty, and that parents perpetuate poverty across generations by passing these characteristics to their children

22

deferred gratification

going without something in the present in the hope of achieving greater gains in the future

23

Horatio Alger myth

the belief that due to limitless possibilities anyone can get ahead if he or she tries hard enough