Chapter 8 - The CNS Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8 - The CNS Deck (82):
1

Grey matter consists of ?

Neuron bodies and dendrites

2

White matter (myelin) consists of ?

Axon tracts

3

Neural tube forms from what and becomes what?

Forms from the groove in ectoderm by 20th day
Becomes CNS

4

Neural Crest cells develops where and becomes what?

Develops where tube fuses
Becomes the ganglia of PNS
(A cluster of cell bodies)

5

What are 3 swellings that form on neural tube?

Forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain

6

Forebrain elaborate into what?

Telencephalon and diencephalon

7

Hindbrain forms

Metencephalon and myelencephalon

8

Telencephalon

Grows disproportionally forming hemispheres of cerebrum

9

Remnants of hollow part of neural tube

Ventricles and central canal

10

Cerebrum

Largest part of brain (80% of mass)
Higher mental functions

11

Hemispheres of cerebrum interconnected by tract of?

Corpus Callosun

12

What is CNS

(Brain and spinal cord)
Receives input from sensory neutrons
Directs activity of motor neurons
Association neurons integrate sensor and motor activity

13

Elevated fold

Gyrus

14

Depressed groove

Sulcus (lots of folds, rigids, grooves)

15

5 lobes

Frontal
Parietal
Temporal
Occipital
Insula

16

Frontal lobe separated from parietal by

Central sulcus

17

Precentral gyrus of FRONTAL LOBE involved

In motor control

(defin.: voluntary motor control of skel. muscles; decision making, planning, personality)

18

Postcentral of PARIETAL LOBE

Receives sensory information from areas controlled by precentral gyrus

(defin.: interpretation; understanding speech, formulating words, thoughts, and emotions)

19

Temporal Lobe

Contains auditory center
Relieves sensory info from cochlea
Also links to processes auditory and visual info

20

Occipital Lobe

Responsible for vision and coordination of eye movements

21

Insula

Plays role in memory encoding

22

X-Ray computed tomography (CT)

Visualizes soft tissues

23

Position/emission tomography (PET)

Used to examine brain metabolism and blood flow, drug distribution

24

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

Shows brain function

25

Functional MRI (fMRI)

Shows area increased neural activity by tracking blood flow

26

Electroencephalogram (EEG)

Measures electrical activity of cerebral cortex

Used to diagnose epilepsy & brain death

27

Alpha waves

From parietal and occipital loves
Person awake, relaxed, eyes closed

28

Beta waves

Strongest from frontal lobes
Evoked by visual stimuli and mental activity

29

Theta waves

From temporal and occipital lobes
Common in newborns
In adults, severe emotional stress

30

Delta waves

From cerebral cortex
Common during a sleeping adult and In an awake infant
Awake adult, indicates brain damage

31

2 types of sleep

Rapid Eye Movement(REM)

Non-Rem

32

REM

Similar to EEG and awake ones

DREAMS

Type when dreaming

33

Non-REM

Appears to be crucial for consolidation of short into long term memory

REMAINDER OF TIME SLEEPING SPENT

Has delta waves

34

Cerebral Nuclei

Distinct masses of cell bodies isolated deep inside cerebrum

Function in control of voluntary movement

Inhibit those motor neurons & stop skeletal muscles

35

Cerebral Lateralization

Specialization of each hemisphere for certain functions

36

Each cerebral hemisphere controls

Movement and receives sensory Information from opposite side of body

37

Decussate

Connect two hemisphere together so one knows what other is doing

38

Left hemisphere

Language and analytical abilities
(Describes face better)

39

Right hemisphere

Best at visuospatial tasks
(Can recognize faces better)

40

Aphasias

Speech and language disorder due to brain damage

41

Broca's area

Necessary for speech
(reluctant to speak, but when trying to speak, their speech would be slow and poor)

42

Wernicke's areas

Involved in language comprehension
(cannot understand either spoken or written language)

43

Hypothalamus and lambic system are crucial for

emotions
Including aggression, fear, feeding, sex, & good directed behaviors

44

Non-declarative (explicit)

Includes memories of simple skills and conditioning

(Long term memory)

45

Declarative (implicit)

Includes verbal memories

Eg amnesiacs have impaired declarative memory

(Long term)

46

Hippocampus

Critical for acquiring new memories and consolidating short into long term memory

47

Neurogenesis

Hippocampus contains neural stems that continually produce new neurons

Stress/depression impede learning to cause hippocampus to shrink

Stress reduction and antidepressants return to normal size

48

Location of thalamus and epithalamus

At base of cerebral hemispheres

49

Neurogenesis and Hippocampus is crucial for

learning aid and memory

50

Thalamus

Relay center thru which all sensory info passes to cerebrum
& plays a role in level of arousal

51

Epithalamus

Contains the choroid plexus which secretes CSF

Also contains pineal gland: secretes melatonin
Involved in sleep cycle and seasonal reproduction

52

Hypothalamus

Controls hormone release from anterior pituitary

Produces ADH and Oxytocin (helps retain water)

Coordinates sympathetic & parasympathetic actions

53

Most important structure for homeostasis

Hypothalamus

54

Posterior Pituitary

Stores and releases ADH (vasopressin and oxytocin)

55

Anterior and Pituitary glands are controlled by

Releasing and inhibiting hormones produced by hypothalamus

56

Circadian Rhythm

A body's daily rhythm regulated by SCN

57

SCN (suprachiasmatic nuclei)

Is the master clock
Adjusted daily by light from eyes
Contains pineal gland

58

Midbrain contains

Superior Colliculi
Inferior Colliculi
Red Nucleus and Substantia nigra

59

Superior Colliculi

Involved in visual reflexes

60

Inferior Colliculi

Relay auditory information

61

Red Nucleus and Substantia nigra

Involved in motor coordination

62

Mesolimbic dopamine neurons

Involved in reward of addiction

63

Hindbrain

Contains pons, cerebellum, medulla

64

3 important respiratory control centers

Rhythmicity Center
Apneustic and
Pneumotaxic Center

65

Rhythmicity Center

Control setting rate in medulla oblongata

66

Apneustic and Pneumotaxic Centers

(Pons)
Promotes inhalation

Keeps you from inhaling too much

67

Cerebellum

(Little brain)
2nd largest structure

Receives input from proprioceptors
Involved in coordinating movements along with cerebral nuclei to motor areas of cortex making in balance, smoothness

68

Proprioceptors

Sensory receptor receiving stimuli from within body related to physician/movement

Eg joint, tendon, ear and muscle receptors

69

Medulla

Contains all tracts that pass b/t brain and spinal cord
Located in Nuclei of cranial nerves
and several crucial centers for breathing & cardiovascular systems
Eg concentration of O, pH levels, regulating blood pressure

70

Reticular Activating System (RAS)

An ascending arousal system that originates in groups of neurons

THESE PROJECT TO THE CEREBRAL CORTEX and CONTROL ITS LEVEL AROUND AROUSAL

71

Activation of the RAS promotes what?

wakefulness
(Not going to wake up)

72

Inhibition of RAS promotes

Sleep

73

tracts

Bundle of nerve fibers that have common origin, function, and determination

74

Sensory information from BODY

Travels to brain in ASCENDING spinal tracts (thru dorsal root)

75

Motor activity from BRAIN

Travels to body DESCENDING spinal tracts (thru ventral root)

76

Commissure

Bundles of nerve fibers that cross over the midline from one side of CNS to other

77

Pyrimidal tracts (corticospinal)

Descend from cerebral cortex to spinal cord without synapsids
Involved in motor pathways.
Function in control of fine movements

78

Extrapyramidal tract (reticulospinal)

descend with many synapses
Influence movement indirectly
Involuntary control
Input coming from cerebellum

79

Spinal nerves

Mixed nerves that separate next to spinal cord into dorsal and ventral roots

80

Dorsal root

Composed of sensory fibers

81

Ventral root

Composed of motor fibers

82

Relax arc

A simple sensory input, motor output circuit involving only peripheral nerves and spinal cord

Sometimes arc has an association neuron b/t sensory and motor neuron