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BIO111: Microbiology > Chapter 9 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 9 Deck (21):
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Biotechnology

Use of microbiology and biochemistry to produce useful products to and solve problems

1

Restriction Enzymes

Enzymes that cut DNA into specific pieces
Ex. Bam H1 and EcoR1

2

Gel Electrophoresis

Separation of DNA fragments by size using electric current and gel

3

What is added to Gel electrophoresis to aid in viewing fragments

Ethidium Bromine (blue)

4

Why does DNA separate into fragments in gelelectrophoresis

DNA is negatively charged and will want to travel to the + end of the gel

5

Agarose

Gel separator used to separate mRNA and DNA

6

Name of the protein separator gel

polyacrylamide

7

Gel electrophoresis is a form of

DNA fingerprinting
- compare with known samples to id bacteria
- also used in crime labs

8

PCR

Polymerase Chain Reaction
- Creates multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence

9

2 main goals of PCR testing

1. make bigger sample
2. diagnostics

10

PCR process

1. Denaturization
2. Annealing
3. Extension

11

Denaturation

helicase
HEAT
split DNA

12

Annealing

Primase

13

Extension

DNA polymerase
Taq (heat stable)

14

Recombinant DNA

- specific DNA fragment put into different organisms
-plasmids are often carriers
- Examples: Human insulin, Vaccines, Rennin, BST, restriction enzymes

15

Transgenic organisms

Plant or animal (eukaryote) cell with recombinant DNA
"genetically modified organisms"

16

examples of transgenic organisms

1. pest resistant plants - Bt toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis
2. Golden rice - Genes from daffodil transferred to rice using bacteria, rice produces extra vitamin A

17

where are transgenic organisms found

agrobacterium "Ti"
studying disease found plasmid

18

Gene Therapy

-use of recombinant DNA to treat a genetic disease
- Healthy gene placed in virus
- Virus added to patient transfers the new DNA to the patient

19

DNA probes

- label applied to a specific DNA region
- colony blotting
- fluorescence

20

DNA sequencing

-Human Genome project
- Human microbiome project