Chapter 9 Flashcards Preview

Human Biology > Chapter 9 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 9 Deck (33):
1

Obstructive Sleep Apnea

A condition in which the airways in the upper respiratory system become blocked during sleep.

2

Central Sleep Apnea

Sleep apnea cased by an illness or injury to the central nervous system and is associated with neurological problems in the brain.

3

What structures of the upper respiratory system might contribute to obstructive sleep apnea?

• Nasal Cavity
• Nasalpharynx
• Oropharynx
• Laryngopharynx
• Glottis
• Larynx

4

Why does the polysomnogram monitor brain function as well as breathing and heart rates?

The brain controls breathing and heart rate

5

Why might weight gain ad alcohol use contribute to sleep apnea?

Diet and alcohol affects sleep patterns, as well as excess weight affecting breathing rate and the functions of the respiratory system during sleep

6

Respiratory System

An organ system consisting of the lings and tubes that bring oxygen into the lungs and take carbon dioxide out.

7

Inspiration

inhalation (breathing in); air is conducted from the atmosphere to the lungs by a series of cavities, tubes, and openings

8

Expiration

exhalation (breathing out); Air is conducted from the lungs to the atmosphere by the series of cavities, tubes, and openings

9

What does the upper respiratory tract consist of?

• Nasal cavity
• Pharynx
• Glottis
• Larynx

10

What does the lower respiratory tract consist of?

• Trachea
• Bronchus
• Bronchioles
• Lung
• Diaphragm

11

Nasal cavity

Filters, warms, and moistens air

12

Pharynx

Passageway where pathway for air and food cross

13

Glottis

Space between the vocal chords; Opening to larynx

14

Larynx

(voice box); produces sound

15

Trachea

(windpipe); passage of air to bronchi

16

Bronchus

Passage of air to the lungs

17

Bronchioles

Passage of air to alveoli

18

Lung

Contains alveoli (air sacs); carries out gas exchange

19

Diaphragm

Skeletal muscle; functions in ventilation

20

Ventilation

Another term for breathing that includes both inspiration and expiration

21

What are the parts of the Pharynx?

• Nasopharynx
• Oropharynx
• Laryngopharynx

22

Nasal Cavities

Narrow canals separated from each other by a septum composed of bone and cartilage

23

What is the purpose of hairs in the nasal cavities?

They filter incoming air and trap small particles, such as mold spores and pollen, so they do not enter air passages

24

What purpose does the mucous membrane serve in the nasal passages?

The mucous secreted helps to trap dust and move it to the pharynx where it can be swallowed or expectorated

25

How does the sense of smell work?

Special ciliated cells reside in the upper recesses of the nasal cavities that act as odor receptors. Nerves lead from these cells to the brain where the impulses are interpreted as smell.

26

Why does one's nose run when crying?

The tear (lacrimal) glands drain into the nasal cavities by way of tear ducts.

27

What purpose do the tonsils serve?

The tonsils form a protective ring at the junction of the oral cavity and the pharynx. The tonsils contain lymphocytes which protect against invasion of inhaled foreign antigens. B cells and T cells are prepared to respond to antigens that may subsequently invade internal tissues and fluids.

28

How do your vocal chords produce sound?

The vocal chords are mucosal folds supported by elastic ligaments, and the slit between the vocal chords is called the glottis. When air is expelled through the glottis, the vocal chords vibrate, producing sound.
• More tension/narrower glottis produces higher pitched sounds
• Less tension/wider glottis, produces lower pitched sounds

29

Of what do the walls of the trachea consist?

Connective tissue and smooth muscle supported by C-shaped cartilaginous rings. The rings prevent the trachea from collapsing

30

Describe the mucous membrane that lines the trachea

It has an outer layer of pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium and goblet cells. The goblet cells produce mucus that traps particles in air as it passes through the trachea.

31

What is a tracheostomy?

The creation of an artificial airway by incision of the trachea and insertion of a tube

32

What are the Pleurae?

Two layers of serous membrane that produce serous fluid. The parietal pleura adheres to the thoracic cavity wall and the visceral pleura adheres to the surface of the lung. Surface tension holds the two pleural layers together.

33

What might happen to overall homeostasis if the alveoli did not function properly?

If alveoli do not function properly gas exchange can not happen and cells will not receive oxygen or be able to remove carbon dioxide and will cease to function.