Chapter 9 Flashcards Preview

Psychology 100A > Chapter 9 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 9 Deck (30):
1

Cognition

the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communication

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concept

a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people

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prototype

a mental image or best example of a category. matching new items to a prototype provides a quick and easy method for sorting items into categories (as when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypically bird, such as a Robin)

4

algorithm

a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. contrasts with the usually speedier -but also more error-prone-use of heuristics

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heuristic

a simple thinks strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithm

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insight

a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it congrats with strategy-based solutions

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confirmation bias

a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence

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fixation

the inability to see a problem from a new perspective, by employing a different mental set

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mental set

a tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past

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functional fixedness

the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual function; an impediment to problem solving

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representativeness heuristic

judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead us to ignore other relevant information

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availability heuristic

estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common

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overconfidence

the tendency to be more confident than correct -to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments

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belief perseverance

clinging to one's initial conception after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited

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intuition

an effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or though, as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning

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framing

the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly effect decisions and judgements

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language

our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning

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phoneme

in a language, the smallest distinctive sound unit

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morpheme

in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or part of a word (such as a prefix)

20

grammar

in a language , a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others

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semantics

the set of rules by which we derive meaning form morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language; also, the study of meaning

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syntax

the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language

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babbling stage

beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language

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one-word stage

the stage in speech development, from age 1-2, during which a child speaks in mostly single words

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two-word stage

beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two-word statements

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telegraphic speech

early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram "go car" using mostly nouns and verbs

27

Aphasia

impairment of language, usually cause by left hemisphere damage, either to Broca's area (impairing speaking) or the Wernicke's area (impairing understanding)

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Broca's area

controls language expression - an area of the frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech

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Wernicke's area

control language reception - a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe

30

linguistic determinism

Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think